Job Satisfaction

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Attitudes and Job Satisfaction

©  HJ Lin in‐class Material  All rights reserved.

3‐0

Attitudes
 Attitude: “a learned predisposition to respond in a
consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with
respect to a given object”
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 Attitude object: physical objects, issues, ideas, events, people, places

©  HJ Lin in‐class Material  All rights reserved.

3‐1

Attitudes
Evaluative statements or judgments concerning
objects, people, or events.
Three components of an attitude:
Affective
Cognitive

The opinion or
belief segment of
an
an attitude

Behavioral

Attitude
Attitude
©  HJ Lin in‐class Material  All rights reserved.

The emotional or
feeling segment of
an attitude
ttit

An intention to behave
in a certain way toward
someone or something
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Three components of an attitude
 Cognitive =Evaluation
 Cognitive: perceptions and beliefs about an attitude object

 My supervisor promoted a coworker whose performance was worse than me. He is unfair.
 Give me some reasons to accept him/her
 Affective =Feeling
 Affective: feelings about an attitude object

 I dislike my supervisor
 I just don’t like him/her
 Behavioral =Action
 Behavioral intentions: how the person wants to behave and what a person says about an attitude object

 I am looking for another job; I’ll present my complaints about my supervisor to anyone who would like to listen.
 I don’t want him/her as my team member.
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3‐3

Attitudes formation
 Affected by the person’s beliefs about an object and
the amount and type of information the person has
about the object
 Perceives positive attributes: develops positive attitude  Perceives negative attributes: develops negative attitude

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Attitudes change
 Attitude change
 Something persuades the person to shift his or her
attitudes (persuasive communication)
 Norms of a social group can affect a person’s
attitude (social norms)
 Person becomes uncomfortable with some aspects of
her or his beliefs (cognitive dissonance)

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Persuasive
Persuasive communication





Advertising
Tries to change cognitive part of attitude
Assumes affective part will also change
Attitude change process
 Win target’s attention
 Understand message
 Accept the influence
 Remember the message

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Social
Social influence
 People are embedded in social groups
 Feel pressures to conform to norms
 If person values membership in group, likely will align attitudes with the group norms

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Cognitive
Cognitive dissonance
 Cognitive Dissonance: Any incompatibility between
Di
two or more attitudes or between behavior and
attitudes
 Hold multiple beliefs or cognitions about an attitude object  Feel tension when discrepancies develop
 Motivated to reduce the tension
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 Change one or more cognitions
 Other parts of attitude also change

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Why are there incompatibilities between attitudes, and
between attitudes and behaviors
 Attitudes depend largely on situations.
 Reasons for incompatibilities (Take consumer behavior
as an example!)
Insufficient involvements
Insufficient feasibility
Insufficient direct experiences
Market changes

3‐9

How do you deal with the incompatibilities between
attitudes and
attitudes, and between attitudes and behaviors ?
 People sometimes change what they say so it does not contradict what they do.
 Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap, or dissonance, to or
reach stability and consistency
 Consistency is achieved by changing the attitudes, modifying the behaviors, or through rationalization
 Desire to reduce dissonance depends on:
 Importance of elements creating dissonance
 Degree of individual influence over elements
 Rewards involved in dissonance
 許多人不離婚是看在孩子的份上;許多人不離職是看在錢的份上

 Moderating factors suggest that individuals will not necessarily move to reduce dissonance
3‐10

Does Behavior Always...
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