Faculty of Management Studies, Siksha O Anusandhan University Bhubaneswar, India firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract — The paper studies the effects of training on employee productivity. This paper provides a review of the current evidence of such a relationship and offers suggestions for further investigation. An extensive review of the literature in terms of research findings from studies that have been trying to measure and understand the impact that individual HR practices like training have on employee productivity across various sectors. The focal point of our review is on training practices and employee productivity and their relationship. In conclusion, we can say that taken as a whole, the research findings are varied. Some studies have found a positive association, some negative and some no association whatsoever. The paper concludes with directions for future research by applying different level of analysis on exploring the impact of training practices on employee productivity. Our comparison and analysis suggest that there definitely exist a relation between these two but the impact and effect of training practices on employee productivity varies for different industry. Keywords-Training; Employee Productivity
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of these resources, training is one of the main activity in order to have qualified, flexible, and proactive employees (Bartel, 1994; Raghuram, 1994; MacDuffie and Kochan, 1995) and to achieve the correct running of each stage of the process of knowledge management (Alavi and Leidner, 2001; Bollinger and Smith, 2001). Organizations spend an enormous amount of time and money on training in order to assist employee's learning of job-related competencies (Cascio, 2000; Noe, 2006). As a result of the financial investments organizations make in training, it is important to provide results that training efforts are being fully realized (Casio, 2000; Dowling & Welch, 2005). The revenue cycle is driven by knowledge, innovation, and creativity – all of which come from employees as shown in Fig 1. Employers must actively manage these assets by investing in training as shown in a more detailed way in Fig 2. Training
Present Scenario of business world is characterized by a growing competitiveness, market globalization and technological advances in organization. The survival of an organization implies the prosecution of sustainable competitive advantages. The knowledge and skills of an organization's employees have become increasingly important to its performance, competitiveness and advancement. Theories placing the origin of these advantages outside the company are now losing validity in favour of those centered on internal elements, especially the theory of resources and capacities. Among the internal resources which can be considered sources of competitive advantage is the human element, mainly due to its intangible characteristics: knowledge, skills and attitudes (Wright et al., 1994; Kamoche, 1996; Mueller, 1996; Barney and Wright, 1998) and organizational knowledge (Bassi et al., 1998; Lee and Yang, 2000; Alavi and Leidner, 2001; Bollinger and Smith, 2001) are being given more and more significance. Although all practices of human resource are implied in the development
Figure 1: Relationship Cycle New employees are informally trained through trial and error, self-assessment and introspection, and by asking questions. Experienced employees learn from on the job experiences. Yet this type of informal, unscheduled training can lead to waste of time and problems in workflow. Studies show that employees who develop through unstructured training are less productive during a developmental period than those who have formal training.
Organizations maintain a blurred position...