There are three fundamental component areas of human resource development (HRD): individual development (personal), career development (professional), and organizational development. The importance of each component will vary from organization to organization according to the complexity of the operation, the criticality of human resources to organizational efficiency, and the organization's commitment to improved human resources. But all three have one focus—individual performance improvement. Since individual performance improvement is the heart of an HRD program, HRD can be described as the "area of congruence" among the three components:
INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT Individual development refers to the development of new knowledge, skills, and/or improved behaviors that result in performance enhancement and improvement related to one's current job (training). Learning may involve formal programs, but is most often accomplished through informal, on-the-job training activities. CAREER DEVELOPMENT Career development focuses on providing the analysis necessary to identify the individual interests, values, competencies, activities, and assignments needed to develop skills for future jobs (development). Career development includes both individual and organizational activities. Individual activities include career planning, career awareness, and utilizing career resource centers. Organizational activities include job posting systems, mentoring systems, career resource center development and maintenance, using managers as career counselors, providing career development workshops and seminars, human resource planning, performance appraisal, and career pathing programs. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Organizational development is directed at developing new and creative organization solutions to performance problems by enhancing congruence among the organization's structure, culture, processes, and strategies within the human resources domain. In other words, the organization should become a more functional unit as a result of a closer working relationship among these elements. The ultimate goal of organizational development is to develop the organization's self-renewing capacity. This refers to the organization's ability to look introspectively and discover its problems and weaknesses and to direct the resources necessary for improvement. As a result, the organization will be able to regenerate itself over and over again as it confronts new and ever-challenging circumstances. This occurs through collaboration of organizational members with a change agent (an HRD practitioner), using behavioral science theory, research, and technology. Human Resource Development in India
Human resource development, in short, means invest¬ment in human capital. Human capital means people can act as capital assets which yield a stream of economic benefits over their working life. An improvement in the mental capability, skill, and physical capacity of the people constitutes an increase in the human capital because this enables the human factor to produce more. Two types of expenditure can be called as investment in human capital. One is expenditure on education i.e., general education and technical training and the other is expenditure on the provision of health care services likes hospitals, medicines etc. For optimum utilization of existing physical capital, investment in human resources or capital is essential, as because technical, professional and administrative people are required to make effective use of material resources. 1. Education in India and Development of Human Resources
The basic objective behind development of human resources is to increase the productivity of labour. Produc¬tivity of labour can be raised either by more and more use of capital intensive tools and machines, and it can also be raised by imparting education both technical and non¬technical, to the laborers for skill-generation....