Human Resources Management

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Training and Development

Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to •Definethetermstraining anddevelopment •DescribeasystematicHRMapproachtotraininganddevelopment—includingtrainingneeds assessment,design,development,delivery,andevaluation •Listanddescribevariousformsoftraining •Explaindecisionsthatareoftennecessarytocreateandadministertrainingprogram •Discussopportunities,challenges,andrecenttrendsintraininganddevelopment

Section 7.1 The Strategic Value of Training and Development

CHAPTER 7

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he American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) is an organization of expertsintraininganddevelopment;theASTDisthemostwidelyrecognizedorganizationofthiskindintheUnitedStates.TheASTDattractsmembersfromaround theworldandfromalltypesoforganizations,allsharingacommonprofessionalinterestin traininganddevelopmentprocessesandinHRM.ThischapterisbasedonASTD’sestablishedtraininganddevelopmentmodels.ThelinkbelowgivesaccesstotheASTD’swebsite.

WEB LINK
The American Society for Training and Development: www.astd.org

According to the ASTD, U.S. organizations spent $134.39 billion in 2007 on employee learninganddevelopment.Organizationsviewthesesubstantialexpendituresasinvestmentsinhumancapital,withreturnsintheformofhigheremployeeproductivity,talent retention,andthecreationofasustainablehuman-basedcompetitiveadvantage. Training is a process that provides employees with opportunities to obtain the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that enable them to perform their current job-relateddutiesmoreeffectivelyandresponsibly.Employeedevelopment,ontheother hand,isnotnecessarilyrelatedtothejobanemployeecurrentlyholds,althoughitcanbe relatedtothatjob(London,1989).Usually,however,developmentfocusesonthefuture and prepares employees to take on the duties and responsibilities of other positions (Fitzgerald,1992).Mostoftheconceptsdiscussedinthischapterapplytobothtraining anddevelopment,andthetwotermsareusedinterchangeablyinmostsections.

7.1 The Strategic Value of Training and Development

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rainingimpartsknowledge.Becauseknowledgeisakeytoorganizationalsuccess, trainingmustbeconsideredstrategically.Trainingcreatesvaluethroughinvesting inemployeeswhoaddvaluetoanorganizationandwhoconstituteitsintellectual capital.Traininghelpsorganizationsleverageknowledge,anditthereforeenablesthem tobecomemorecompetitive.Evenorganizationsthathaveexceptionalrecruitmentand selectioncompetenciessometimesfindthattheylackcriticalKSAsbecauseenvironmental, market, and technological changes continuously render existing KSAs redundant, obsolete,oroflimiteduse.However,trainingbyitselfdoesnothaveanystrategicvalue unlessitislinkedtoorganizationalgoalsandobjectives.Inotherwords,trainingshould bedesigned,implemented,andevaluatedsothatitcontributestomeasurableimprovementsinorganizationalcorecompetencies. Trainingcanalsohaveapositiveeffectonanorganization’srateofemployeeretention. Workers are on the lookout for employers who offer and promote training and career advancement. Training and career development are valued more highly than high salaries, and they contribute to job satisfaction. Therefore, training plays a critical role in attractingandretainingtalent(Hequet,1993).

Section 7.2 The Training Process

CHAPTER 7

7.2 The Training Process

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raining starts with an accurate, comprehensive, and strategically oriented assessment of an organization’s training needs.Trainingisthendesignedanddeveloped based on...
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