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Cross Cultural Evidence for the Fundamental Features of Extraversion

There has yet to be any determining evidence defines the characteristics of extraversion. The experimenters in this particular experiment have hypothesized that the facets of extraversion are somehow linked by reward sensitivity. This hypothesis was also tested against a model in which they are linked by sociability. There has been much work on this topic in the past, beginning with the works of Jung and James in the early 20th century—to the work of Watson and Clark in 1997. And even after a century of study, they are still unable to truly define the characteristics of the extraversion dimension of personality. In the many attempts to define extraversion, Watson and Clark have defined six basic facets of the personality trait. These are: venturesome, affiliation, positive affectivity, energy, ascendance, and ambition. Researchers Depue and Collins, in 1999, also offered a more succinct depiction of the characteristics of extraversion, this only having three basic parts. The first being affiliation, the enjoyment and value of close interpersonal bonds, also being warm and affectionate. The second, agency, being socially dominant, enjoying leadership roles, being assertive and exhibitionistic, and having a sense of potency in accomplishing goals. The final facet being impuslivity, but this one has been argued upon whether it should be included at all in the characteristics of extraversion at all.

Their first study was composed of 443 college students from two large universities in the Midwest. The participants were offered credit in their introductory psychology classes in return for their participation. They completed a questionnaire as part of their participation. 52% of the participants were men, and 48% were women. 94% were between the ages of 18 and 25. Only the 404 students that had complete data were used to set up the model that the experimenters formed. The second...
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