process of gathering and incorporating evaluation datacaters for the sustainability of the course ”
After going through the processes of building, enhancing,and maintaining in 3PD instructional design model, the coreof this research, which is to analyze students‟ cognitive
engagement will be carried out.
Students‟ discussion scriptswill be analyzed according to Van der Meijden‟s analytical framework . His coding scheme has been repeatedlytested in his previous researches (see Kleine Staarman ).Finally, the efficiency of the developed system will be evaluated with respect to students‟ level of cognitive
engagement (can it excites the level of cognitive
engagement to the higher degree), students‟ pattern of
and its‟ relationship with level of cognitiveengagement, and students‟ academic performances. The following sub-topics will provide greater insight oneach elements of the proposed theoretical framework. A.
Cognitive Engagement in Online Learning
The definition of cognitive engagement is adapted from
 previous work. His definition of cognitive
engagement is the students‟ attention to discussion
messages, which can be observed from several postingsbehaviour . According to Zhu , students‟ mental effort
can be translated in activities such as seeking, interpreting,analyzing and summarizing information, critiquing andreasoning through various opinions and arguments, andmaking decisions. Respectively, the related activities are thecharacteristics of collaborative co-construction of knowledge . Hence, cognitive engagement with thisrespect can also be understood as students‟
sustained mentaleffort for co-construction of knowledge while solving thegiven task. Figure 1. The theoretical framework to investigate cognitive engagementin computer-supported collaborative learning environment. B.
Enhancing Cognitive Engagement through Computer-supported Collaborative Learning Upon defining the context of cognitive engagement inthis research, computer-supported collaborative learning isthe suggested mediation to enhance cognitive engagement inonline learning. Principles of CSCL are collected fromvaries researches. However, only five attributes will beexperimented in this research. There are:
theory behind the type of collaboration ,
type of collaborative tasks ,
type of participants ,
role of collaborating participants ,
type of tutoring .
Three-phase Design Instructional Design Model
Rather than employing the effort of replacing thewidely-used ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Develop,Implement, Evaluate) steps, the reason for coming up withThree-phase Design, 3PD is to welcome new interpretationof the overall idea of instructional design with respect toonline teaching and learning . Three-phase Design(3PD) model is pioneered by Sims and Jones  (seeFigure 1) where it supports revision, enhancement andadaptability. The model emphasized on collaborating andongoing works of the team over the phases. It allowsanalysis of instructional problems and immediate accuratesolutions .In relation to the instructional design, the modelconsiders the following issues with respect to the onlinelearners:
the learner has the potential to advance and definetheir own essential knowledge based,
the very uncertainty and lack of predictability of learning outcomes will be the key factor that addsvalue to a learning community,
emergent systems will provide the necessarytriggers to enhance knowledge and understanding,and
emergent learning will be one of the criticaltriggers to unleash individual creativity . Figure 2. The Three-Phase Design Model by Sims and Jones (2003) beingadapted from Sims (2008).
Analyzing Cognitive Engagement
Van der Meijden‟s work is to analyze social knowledge
construction in CSCL environment based on the attributes
He values both...