IRACST- International Journal of Research in Management & Technology (IJRMT), ISSN: 2249-9563 Vol. 2, No. 3, June 2012
Overview of Instructional Design Model: Issues and
Research Scholar, NITTTR, India
Dr. Kit Chee Wong
Adjunct (Visiting) Professor of Management.
UGSM-Monarch Business School Switzerland.
Adjunct Faculty University of Wales UK.
Instruction design (ID) is perhaps the most critical
component of material development of today’s focus in
education industry, since the effectiveness of learning is
controlled primarily by the nature of instruction. How
instruction is delivered to the audience is the key factor that decides the success or failure of the content designed by the course designer. In today’s scenario lot of well-known ID
model are available, in this paper we review the important
aspects of ID models and the current issues and challenges
that are faced while implementing it in the real world
situation by the instructional designers while preparing the course materials for learning.
ID models describe a systematic process, typically
delineated by phases. They provide a structure to use when
designing instructional products and experiences to meet
learners’ instruction. ID models provide a series of steps to help us communicate with clients to determine project goals, learner outcomes, timelines, and budget. This is a systematic process with roots in behaviourist theory. This is a valuable process particularly useful for teaching concepts,
procedures, and basic skills. On the other hand, there are
also learning goals that involve critical thinking, problem
solving, and lifelong learning skills (Dunlap & Grabinger,
2003). There are also benefits of employing new media in
learning and teaching and embedding the use of Information
Technology into the curriculum. These methods of learning
are being harnessed to improve access, enhance the quality
of learning, increase effectiveness of teaching and hopefully provide cost efficiency (Kyriaki Anagnostopoulou, 2006).
The term instruction, in this paper, refers to the content that is delivered to a learner. The process of delivery is
important in instruction design, since that is what
encompasses much of the pedagogical issues. As
practitioners we need to be aware that online learning
experiences can be designed in a number of ways, some of
which provide learners with richer online learning
experiences than others; but the ultimate intention here is
how well the content is received and delivered to the
respective audience using the best suited ID models.
Overview of Common Weakness in Material design:
Teachers prepare the learning environment for learning to
take place at a lecture/ seminar room early to make sure that
presentation equipment’s are in order, seating capacity and the lighting is perfect for the class to conduct etc. Inglis et al (1999) identify three zones of expertise: information
technology, instructional design and subject knowledge. It is unlikely that one individual will be proficient in all three areas. So we might need a team of expertise people to form
a group for the sole purpose of designing learning material
to be accessed online by traditional students. Let us take for example to deliver the content using a textbook approach.
As a teacher, you'll need to make many decisions, and one
of those is how you want to use the textbook. As good as
they may appear on the surface, textbooks do have some
limitations (Excerpted from The Complete Idiot's Guide to
Success as a Teacher © 2005 by Anthony D. Fredericks).
The textbook is designed as a
sole source of information.
Students only see one
perspective on a concept or
Textbook is old or outdated.
Information shared with students
is not current or relevant.
Textbook questions tend to be
low level or fact-based.
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