I) Key Features
1. New material is presented in dialog form.
2. There is dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases, and over-learning. 3. Structures are sequenced by means of constractive analysis and taught one at a time. 4. Structual patterns are taught using repetitive drills. 5. There is little or no grammatical explanation. Grammar is taught by inductive analogy rather than deductive explanation. 6. Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in context. 7. There is much use of tapes, language labs, and visual aids. 8. Great importance is attached to pronunciation.
9. Very little use of the mother tongue by teachers is permitted. 10. Successful responses are immediately reinforced.
11. There is great effort to get students to produce error-free utterances. 12. There is a tendancy to manipulate language and disregard content. II) Typical techniques
1. Dialogue memorization: Students memorize an opening dialogue using mimicry and applied role-playing. 2. Backward build-up (expansion drill): Teacher breaks a line into several parts, student repeat each part starting at the end of the sentence and “expanding” backwards through the sentence, adding each part in sequence. 3. Repetition drill: sstudent repeat teacher’s model as quickly and accurately as possible. 4. Chain drill: Students ask and answer each other one-by-one in a circular chain around the classroom. 5. Single-slot substitution drill: Teacher states a line from the dialogue, then uses a word or a phrase as a “cue” that students, when repeating the line, must substitute into the sentence in the correct place. 6. Multiple-slot substitution drill: Same as the Single Slot drill, except that there are multiple cues to be substituted into the line. 7. Transformation drill: Teacher provides a sentence that must be turned into something else, for example a question to be turned into a statement, an active sentence to be turned into a negative statement, etc. 8. Question-and-answer drill: Student should answer or ask questions very quickly 9. Use of minimal pairs: Using contrastive analysis, teacher selects a pair of words that sound identical except for a single sound that typically poses difficulty for the learners – students are to pronounce and differentiate the two words. 10. Complete the dialogue: Selected words are erased from a line in the dialogue – students must find and insert. AUDIO-LINGUAL AUDIO-VISUAL METHOD
Mid 1960's - three new technological aids came into general use in the classroom-language laboratory, portable tape-recorder and film-strip projector. All these were greeted with euphoria in all modern language departments. Extensive use of tapes and equipment was revolutionary for language teachers. Instead of buying sets of books to equip a class, teachers were demanding most expensive boxes of film-strips and sets of tapes. Blackout facilities and electric points had to be installed. Potential offered to language teaching by tape-recorder was enormous - now possible to bring native speaking voices into classroom. Editing and self-recording facilities now available. Tapes could be used with tape recorder or in language laboratory. Early audio-visual courses consisted of taped dialogues, accompanied by film -strips which were designed to act as visual cues to elicit responses in the foreign language. Most audio-lingual courses consisted of short dialogues and sets of recorded drills. Method was based on a behaviourist approach, which held that language is acquired by habit formation. Based on assumption that foreign language is basically a mechanical process and it is more effective if spoken form precedes written form. The stress was on oral proficiency and carefully- structured drill sequences (mimicry/memorisation) and the idea that quality and permanence of learning are in direct proportion to amount of practice carried out. But early...