Ap World Ch 20

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KEY POINTS: Chapter 20


1453 – fall of Constantinople to Ottomans
1510 – Safavid conquest of Persia completed
1514 – Ottoman victory at battle of Chaldiran
1526 – Babur’s conquest of India
1701 – death of Aurangzeb, Mughal decline begins
1736 – Nadir Shah proclaimed sultan of Persia

Terms, People, Events

Ottomans – Turkic people who advanced from strongholds in Asia Minor during 1350s; conquered large part of Balkans, unified under Mehmed I; captured Constantinople in 1453; established empire from Balkans that included most of the Arab world Vizier – equivalent of the Abbasid wazir; head of Ottoman bureaucracy; after 15th century often more powerful than sultan Red Heads – name given to Safavid followers for their distinctive red headgear Shah Abbas the Great – Safavid ruler 1587-1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology Isfahan – Safavid capital under Abbas the Great; planned city laid out according to shah’s plan; example of Safavid architecture Babur – founder of Mughal Dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530 Din-I-Ilahi – religion initiated by Akbar in Mughal India; blended elements of the many faiths of the subcontinent; key to efforts to reconcile Hindus and Muslims in India, but failed Aurangzeb – son and successor of Shah Jahan in Mughal India; determined to extend Muslim control over whole of subcontinent; wished to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare exhausted empire despite military successes; died in 1707 Mehmed II – Ottoman sultan called the “Conqueror”; responsible for conquest of Constantinople in 1453; destroyed what remained of the Byzantine Empire Safavid Dynasty – originally, a Turkic nomadic group; family originated in Sufi mystic group; espoused Shi’ism; conquered territory and established...
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