Chap 5: Personality and Values
personality - Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior.
heredity - Factors determined at conception; one’s biological, physiological, and inherent psychological makeup.
personality traits - Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types.
•Extraverted (E) versus Introverted (I). Extraverted individuals are outgoing, sociable, and assertive. Introverts are quiet and shy.
•Sensing (S) versus Intuitive (N). Sensing types are practical and prefer routine and order. They focus on details. Intuitives rely on unconscious processes and look at the “big picture.”
•Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F). Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems. Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions.
•Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P). Judging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous.
Big Five Model - A personality assessment model that taps five basic dimensions.
•Extraversion. The extraversion dimension captures our comfort level with relationships. Extraverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and sociable. Introverts tend to be reserved, timid, and quiet.
•Agreeableness. The agreeableness dimension refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others. Highly agreeable people are cooperative, warm, and trusting. People who score low on agreeableness are cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.
•Conscientiousness. The conscientiousness dimension is a measure of reliability. A highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.
•Emotional stability. The emotional stability dimension—often labeled by its converse, neuroticism—taps a person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.
•Openness to experience. The openness to experience dimension addresses range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Those at the other end of the category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar.
core self-evaluation - Bottom-line conclusions individuals have about their capabilities, competence, and worth as a person.
Machiavellianism - The degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.
narcissism - The tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement.
self-monitoring - A personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.
proactive personality - People who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs.
values - Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.
value system - A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity.
terminal values - Desirable end-states of existence; the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime.
instrumental values - Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values.
personality–job fit theory - A theory that identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover.
power distance - A national culture...