Topics: Decision making, Leadership, Risk Pages: 6 (1195 words) Published: March 27, 2014
Leaders: press for change, provide vision, strategy, develop followers Manager: promote stability, implement vision and strategy, coordinate &staff, handle day to day operations Theories:
Trait theory : predict leadership
big five: extraversion, conscientiousness, openness , EI (EMPATHY) Contingent theory: leadership effectiveness depends on situation, adjustment of behavior is required Fiedler contingency model: effective group performance depends on proper match between leaders’ style and the degree which the situation gives control to leader Situations:

Leader member relations- deg of confidence, trust, respect members have for leader Task structure- degree which job assignments are procedurized Position power- degree of influence over power based activities (ie hiring) Leader must change to fit situation or situation must change Hersey/Blanchard situational leadership:

Followers are :
Display high task/relationship orientation
Be clear, specific in direction
Substitutes for leadership
Individual (experience, professionalism, indifference to rewards) Job(high structure, provide feed back, intrinsic satisfaction ) Organization ( explicit formal goals, rigid rules/procedure, cohesive group) Inspirational leadership: inspire followers to transcend self interest for the organizations. Also achieve extraordinary performance from followers Charismatic leaders [characteristics]

Have Vision, articulation
Willing to take personal risks
Sensitive to followers’ needs and responsiveness
Unconventional behavior
Negative effects:
Ego driven : too much focus on self interest and not enough on organization’s goals Followers sometimes have low self worthblindly follow leader No room for criticism
Works best mostly in stressful and uncertain situations

Transformational leaders
Vision (idealized influence)
Inspirational motivation – lead to higher expectations
Intellectual stimulation
Individualized consideration
Transactional leaders
Contingent rewards (for accomplishments)
Management by expectation (Active) – correct bad rules
Management by expectation (passive) – intervene only if standards are not met Laissez-faire – avoid making decisions [least effective ]
Transactional complement transformational
Contemporary leadership: for non managers
Present ideas, listen emphasize
Senior employees support less experienced employees
Restricts minorities / women since mentors want to counsel those with similar backgrounds Self leadership/team
Set goalsimplement taskevaluate performance solve problems motivate themselves Team leaders play: liaisons with external constituencies, troubleshooters, conflict managers, coaches Online
Identification based trust ( mutual understanding of each other’s intentions/appreciation) Building trust is important
Physically distant, lack of face to face communication
Impersonal electronic messages
Exhibiting leadership without formal title
Benefit: freedom to express creative deviance, focus on single issue, being closer to people with information (frontline info) Issues with contemporary leaders
Authentic leadership
Having a clear sense of who they are, their beliefs/values and acting on them openly Trust is primary quality: share info, open communication, sticking to ideals Morals
Socialized charismatic leadership: convey values for others Foundation: truth telling, promise keeping, fairness, respecting others Gender
Men and women have similar leadership
Men: more directive, command, control, formal authority
Women: more democratic:
Share power, enhance self worth of followers, rely on charisma CH12: DECISION MAKING, CREATIVITY, ETHICS
Decision: choice made from two or more alternatives
Rational decision making: rational decision maker makes consistent, value maximizing choices with specified...
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