When Quality Control Gets in the Way of Quality

Topics: Quality control, Control chart, Quality assurance Pages: 21 (6132 words) Published: October 28, 2008
Total Quality Management





Total Quality Management (TQM) is a comprehensive and structured approach to organizational management that seeks to improve the quality of products and services through ongoing refinements in response to continuous feedback. TQM requirements may be defined separately for a particular organization or may be in adherence to established standards, such as the International Organization for Standardization's ISO 9000 series. TQM can be applied to any type of organization; it originated in the manufacturing sector and has since been adapted for use in almost every type of organization imaginable, including schools, highway maintenance, hotel management, and churches. As a current focus of e-business, TQM is based on quality management from the customer's point of view.

Four sequential categories
TQM processes are divided into four sequential categories: plan, do, check, and act (the PDCA cycle). •In the planning phase, people define the problem to be addressed, collect relevant data, and ascertain the problem's root cause; •in the doing phase, people develop and implement a solution, and decide upon a measurement to gauge its effectiveness; •in the checking phase, people confirm the results through before-and-after data comparison; •in the acting phase, people document their results, inform others about process changes, and make recommendations for the problem to be addressed in the next PDCA cycle.

When there is an over-emphasis or over-doing in the process of quality control, it will narrow the path towards quality of the product or service concerned.

Statistical control
Many organizations use statistical process control to bring the organization to Six Sigma levels of quality, in other words, so that the likelihood of an unexpected failure is confined to six standard deviations on the normal distribution. This probability is less than four one-millionths. Items controlled often include clerical tasks such as order-entry as well as conventional manufacturing tasks. Traditional statistical process controls in manufacturing operations usually proceed by randomly sampling and testing a fraction of the output. Variances of critical tolerances are continuously tracked, and manufacturing processes are corrected before bad parts can be produced. Company quality

During the 1980s, the concept of “company quality” with the focus on management and people came to the fore. It was realised that, if all departments approached quality with an open mind, success was possible if the management led the quality improvement process. The company-wide quality approach places an emphasis on three aspects :- 1.Elements such as controls, job management, adequate processes, performance and integrity criteria and identification of records 2.Competence such as knowledge, skills, experience, qualifications 3.Soft elements, such as personnel integrity, confidence, organisational culture, motivation, team spirit and quality relationships. The quality of the outputs is at risk if any of these three aspects are deficient in any way. The approach to quality management given here is therefore not limited to the manufacturing theatre only but can be applied to any business activity: •Design work

Administrative services
Computer software
It comprises a quality improvement process, which is generic in the sense it can be applied to any of these activities and it establishes a behaviour pattern, which supports the achievement of quality. This in turn is supported by quality management practices which can include a number of business systems and which...

Bibliography: o website of Hinopak;
o www.googles.com.pk
o www.statsoft.com
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