Human Resource Management is consistently challenged by the need to adapt to the forever changing business environment and react through their focus on staffing policies to enhance their own competitive advantage within a business setting. This essay identifies the key reasons why staffing policies are changing as well as how they are changing from an organisational point of view. This paper also includes academic literature and organisations to support the theories and practices used. Introduction
The nature of work in today’s society brings many challenges for staffing in organisations. Some of the factors that are contributing to the dynamic nature of work environments are knowledge-based work places and the fact that organisations are placing more demand on employee competencies. In conjunction with this the demographics within an organisation such as culture, age and diverse work places are all contributing to the business environment and staffing policies. Staffing, as described by Heneman & Judge (2009, p.28) is the practice of acquiring, deploying and retaining a workforce to create a positive impact on the overall effectiveness of organisations. Each of the practices identified by Heneman and Judge (2009, p.28), come together to create staffing policies for organisations. Whilst the notion of acquiring talented employees, deploying competent staff members and retaining quality employees all contribute to staffing policies, they also form part of the wider goal which is Strategic Human Resource Management and the end goal of sustained competitive advantage. Literature review identified arguments for and against each of these ideas presented by Heneman and Judge (2009) which will be explored in further detail. This paper will critically analyse academic writings on staffing as well as drawing on personal experience (Company ABC) and case evidence from South West Airlines to support and/or challenge the main arguments.
Over the past twenty years there has been a significant shift in the way that organisations and Human Resource Management acquire employees. The past decade has witnessed the acquiring process shift from risk management, to one of capitalizing on strengths and talents (Suddith & Dowden, 2013, p.24). Wright, McMahan, & McWilliams (1994) noted that employees are more commonly seen as a strategic source of sustainable competitive advantage in that an employee’s skills intelligence and judgement all play a role in the overall success of an organisation (p.312). This change in mindset over the past twenty years has allowed Human Resource Management to change its focus on acquiring new employees. Human Resource Management and its quest to select talented employees have developed many approaches to the recruitment process, such as the increasing use of psychometric testing. Psychometric testing identifies the abilities, personality and traits of potential employees and enables the HRM function to determine fit with the vacant position. Belbin’s (1981, p.48) team based model supports psychometric testing as an aid to selecting the right individual as the measure of Belbin Team Role Self-Perception Inventory uses psychometric properties and criteria to select employees based on their dominant profile. Belbin (1981, p.72) claims individuals can be grouped by eight role types, and are aligned to both a primary and secondary profile. Belbin (1981, p.76) goes on to state that the most successful teams and organisations have a combination of the eight role types. Table one describes Belbin’s eight roles. From personal experience in Company ABC, psychometric testing is used mainly for senior positions. This is due to the fact that psychometric testing is an objective approach to recruitment, and Company ABC utilises personality and trait assessments to obtain a deeper understanding of the individual, to ensure the candidate has a good organisational fit within the company....
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Figure 1 – Team Role Summary Descriptions (Belbin 2012)
Figure 2 Top Five Drivers of employee engagement (Friedman, 2005)
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