Topics: Linguistics, Syntax, Grammar Pages: 13 (3262 words) Published: October 19, 2014
Descriptive Linguistics

Thesis Statement: Knowledge on phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics constitutes our understanding of linguistics.

Linguistics is derived from the Latin root “lingua” which means tongue. It is the science of language, its origin, its structure, modification, etc. including phonetics, phonemics, morphology, syntax and semantics of language. I. Phonology

Phonology is the science of speech sound or the sound system of language. It is also defined as the phonemics and phonetics of a language at a particular time. It also deals with the patterns of intonation. This science is also characterized in many ways. It refers to both linguistic knowledge that speakers have about the sound patterns of language and the description of that language. Also, it tells you what sounds are in your language and which ones are foreign. And, it explains why certain phonetic features are important to identify a word. Phonetics and phonemics constitutes phonology. However, though these two have similarities, they meant different things. Phonemics is a branch of linguistic analysis involving the study of phonemes. It deals with the structure of a language in terms of phonemes. On the other hand, phonetics is a branch of linguistics which deals with the analysis, description and classification of the sounds of speech. Phonetics as a science has (3) three kinds: acoustic, auditory, and articulatory phonetics. Acoustic phonetics focuses on the physical properties of sounds. This phonetics focuses on the symbols that represent the sounds of language. Auditory phonetics is concerned with how listeners perceive these sounds. And, articulatory phonetics deals with the study of the vocal tract producing the sounds of the language. It refers to how we produce the sounds of language. The sounds of language can be represented or symbolized either by using the IPA or the International Phonetic Alphabet or the PCLS or the Philippine Center for Language Study. The two have different symbols but somehow it symbolizes the same sounds. The vowels have many classifications: lax, tensed, rounded, unrounded, high, middle, low, front, center, and back vowels. The consonants too are classified in many ways. One classification is according to the place of articulation: the bilabial, labiodental, interdental, alveolar, palatal, velar, and glottal. The schwa or the neutral vowels are also present in the sound of language. Meantime, the sound is given importance or emphasis in a word by the stress or the accent. There are these so called primary, secondary, tertiary and weak stresses. There are also these pitch levels of intonation where the low tone is used to end the sentence, the normal tone is used to begin the sentence, the high tone is used to give emphasis or importance to a particular word, and the extra high which is used to express the feeling of surprise. Also, intonation is classified as rising-falling and rising intonation. The knowledge of phonology determines how we pronounce words and the parts of words we call morphemes. Often, certain morphemes are pronounced differently depending on their context. These variations will be introduced with phonological rules. Allomorph is meant the more technical term for a variant or the sound of the endings of a word. In forming the plural of nouns, the ending s and es will be sounded or pronounced differently as in /s/, /z/, and separate syllable / əz/ depending on what sound it follows. Also, in forming the past tense of regular verbs, the d or ed will be pronounced as /d/, /t/, or separate syllable /Id/ depending on what sound it is preceded. There are other rules in pronouncing and the knowledge of it will reflect your knowledge of the phonology of the language. According to Bernard Sho, “spelling is inconsistent”. It is because orthography or the alphabetic spelling does not represent the sound of a language in a consistent way. Thus, in this first macro area of linguistics, which...
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