top-rated free essay

Psychology

By norheliana Apr 12, 2013 1734 Words
LECTURE 7



A system of communication  Words and written symbols  A two-way process  Productive, complex, infinite  Functions 1. Influences behaviors 2. Escapes reality with imagination 3. Communicates info and emotions

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

2

1. 2. 3.


Phonology – knowledge of language’s sound system (phonetics) Morphology – rules specifying how words are formed from sounds Semantics – meanings expressed in words 

Free morphemes – stand alone words Bound morphemes – cannot stand alone, change meaning of free morphemes when added

Syntax – rules specifying how words are combined to produce sentences 5. Pragmatics – principles governing how language is used in different social situations  Also requires interpretation of nonverbal signals 4.

PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

3

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

4

 Broca’s


area: Portion of the cerebral cortex that controls expressive language. Left frontal region

 Expressive

aphasia: Loss of the ability to speak fluently.  Wernicke’s area: Portion of the cerebral cortex that controls language comprehension 

Left temporal region

 Receptive

aphasia: Loss of the ability to comprehend speech
PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

5

Motor cortex

Broca's area Primary auditory area

Wernicke's area

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

6

 The


Learning (Empiricist) Perspective

Imitation, reinforcement and correction are responsible for learning language Evaluation of Learning Perspective  



Imitation and reinforcement are important Syntax (grammatical correctness) not reinforced

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

7

 The


Nativist Perspective

Humans are biologically programmed to acquire language




Language acquisition device (LAD) – activated by verbal input (Chomsky)  Universal grammar – common set of rules Language-Making Capacity (Slobin)

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

8



Figure 10.1 A model of language acquisition proposed by nativists. PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

9



Support for the Nativist Perspective
  



Presence of linguistic universals Language is species specific Brain Specialization and Language  Broca’s area – speech production  Wernicke’s area – speech comprehension Sensitive-Period Hypothesis – language most easily acquired - birth to puberty

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

10



Figure 10.2 As shown here, there is a clear relationship between the age at which immigrants arrived in the United States and their eventual adult performance in English grammar. Those who arrived early in childhood end up performing like native speakers of English, whereas those who arrived as teenagers or adults perform much more poorly. PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

11

A Critical Period and Language Acquisition
280 276

270
260 250 240 230 220

210

Native 3-7 8-10 11-15 speakers Immigrants: Age (in years) on arrival in U.S.

17-39

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

12



Problems with the Nativist Approach
  

Other species show auditory discrimination early in life Doesn’t explain language development Overlooked the role of the environment

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

13

 The



Interactionist Perspective

Biological and Cognitive Contributors
Biologically prepared to acquire language  Gradually maturing nervous system, develop similar ideas at same age  Biological maturation affects cognitive development, affecting language

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

14



Figure 10.3 Grammatical complexity increases as a function of the size of children’s productive vocabulary. PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

15



Environmental Supports
 



Language is a means of communicating Lessons from Joint Activities  Conversations require taking turns Lessons from Child-Directed Speech  Short, simple sentences (motherese)  Becomes more complex with language development Lessons from Negative Evidence  Respond to ungrammatical speech  



Environmental Supports, continued


Expansion – corrected and enriched version Recast – new grammatical forms



Importance of Conversation  Must be involved in using language, exposure to speech is not sufficient PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

16

Figure 10.4 An overview of the interactionist perspective on language development. PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

17



Early Reactions to Speech  3 days old, prefer mother’s voice  Can distinguish phonemes adults cannot  The Importance of Intonational Cues  Sensitive to cues from birth  7 months sensitive to phrase units Producing Sounds: Prelinguistic Vocalizations  2 months – cooing (vowel sounds)  4-6 months – babbling (vowel + consonant)  10-12 months – vocables – reserving sounds for particular situations



PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

18





What Do Prelinguistic Infants Know about Language and Communication?  7-8 months, vocal turn taking  Gestures and Nonverbal Communication  8-10 months  Declarative – directing attention  Imperative – alter others’ behavior Do Preverbal Infants Understand the Meaning of Words?  12-13 months – yes  Receptive language (understanding) develops earlier than productive language (expression) PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

19





Holophrase – one word “sentences” Early Semantics: Building a Vocabulary 
 

Vocabulary grows one word at a time Naming explosion – 18-24 months Talk most about manipulable objects Multimodel motherese – exaggerated sentences by an adult accompanied by an action explaining the words

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

20

Table 10.1 Types of Words Used by Children with Productive Vocabularies of 50 Words. SOURCE: Adapted from Nelson, 1973. PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

21



Individual and Cultural Variations


 

Referential style – word refer to people or objects (Western cultures) Expressive style – personal/social words (Eastern cultures) Birth order influences language style

 Attaching
 

Meaning to Words

Fast-mapping – quickly acquiring a word after hearing it applied a few times Good at 13-15 months, better for understanding, difficult retrieving words from memory

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

22

1.

Common Errors in Word Use  Overextension – overgeneralization  Underextension – using word for small range of objects Strategies for Inferring Word Meanings  Use of social and contextual cues  Processing constraints  Object scope; Mutual exclusivity; lexical constraint Syntactical Clues to Word Meaning  Syntactical bootstrapping – learning meaning from sentence structure  Noun – object  Adjective – characteristic of object  Causation – action word PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

2.

3.

23

Table 10.2 Some Processing Strategies, or Constraints, That Guide Young Children’s Inferences about the Meaning of New Words. PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

24

 Telegraphic
  

speech – 18-24 months

Simple sentences, containing only critical words (no grammatical markers) More common in languages where word order is more important than grammatical markers A Semantic Analysis of Telegraphic Speech

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

25



Table 10.3 Similarities in Children’s Spontaneous Two-Word Sentences in Four Languages. SOURCE: Adapted from Slobin, 1979. PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

26

1.
 

A Semantic Analysis of Telegraphic Speech
Follows some grammatical rules Context is also vital for understanding meaning

2.
 

The Pragmatics of Early Speech
2 year olds – good at vocal turn-taking Prefer to talk about unshared information Monitor responses to clarify meaning Understanding need to be polite




PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

27

Preschool period (2 ½-5) sentences complex and adultlike  Grammatical Development 

become

Development of Grammatical Morphemes




Grammatical morphemes – modifiers give more precise meaning to sentences  ‘s’ for plurality; ‘ed’ for past tense  ‘ing’ for present progressive Grammatical Morphemes - continued  Acquired in a specific order  Overregularization – overextend new grammatical morphemes 

Relatively rare

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

28



Table 10.4 Samples of One Boy’s Speech at Three Ages.

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

29



Table 10.5 Order of Acquisition of English Grammatical Morphemes. PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

30



Figure 10.5 A linguistic puzzle used to determine young children’s understanding of the rule for forming plurals in English.

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

31



Mastering Transformational Rules


Transformation grammar – rules for creating variations of declarative sentences  Asking questions  

Yes/no – rising intonation Wh- questions (who, what, where, when, why) Negative before sentence Move negative inside sentence Combine negative with auxiliary verb Age 3 - clauses, conjunctions first, embedded sentences next 5-6 good grammar



Moving auxiliary verbProducing Negative Sentences
 





Producing Complex Sentences
 

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

32







Semantic Development  2-5 understand and express relational contrasts  Big/little; tall/short; in/on; here/there  Frequently misinterpret passives Development of Pragmatics and Communication Skills  3 year olds – illocutionary intent – real meaning may be different than literal meaning of words  3-5 – must tailor messages to communicate effectively Referential Communication  Ability to detect ambiguities in others’ speech and ask for clarification  Preschool – fail to detect linguistic ambiguities  Generally successfully guess  Assume own uninformative sentences are clear  Better in natural environment than lab PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

33

 Later



Syntactical Development

Middle childhood – syntactical refinement
Subtle rules, complex structures

 Semantic



and Metalinguistic Awareness

Rapid vocabulary growth –
Morphological knowledge – meaning of morphemes to determine new words Add abstract words





9 to 11 – recognize and make inferences

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

34





Metalinguistic awareness  Thinking about language and comment on properties  Grammatical awareness  Phonological awareness – linked to reading achievement Further Development of Communication Skills  Dramatic improvement in referential communication skills by 6 or 7  Less egocentric, more role-taking  9 - 10 years old – more clarification for ambiguous information PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

35



Table 10.6 Typical Idiosyncratic Descriptions Offered by Preschool Children When Talking about Unfamiliar Graphic Designs in the Krauss and Glucksberg Communication Game. PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

36

 What


Role Do Siblings Play in the Growth of Communication Skills? Promotes effective communication




Siblings less likely to adjust speech, but then more likely to monitor and fix ambiguous messages Less likely to interpret ambiguous message from younger sibling – forcing them to adjust

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

37



Table 10.7 Important Milestones in Language Development.
PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

38

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

39

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

40

 LANGUAGE
 

AND...

Bilingualism and Cognition Self-Regulation




Private speech – children’s vocalized speech to themselves that directs behavior Inner speech – form of private speech



Cultural Socialization

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

41








Exposure to 2 languages prior to age 3, proficient in both Preschool children, often learn second language to proficiency in 1 year Cognitive advantages Score higher on IQ tests, metalinguistic awareness, better selective attention

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

42

 English-only
 

instruction

Causes LEP children to struggle academically Do not acquire sufficient level of skill in English

 Two-way
 

bilingual education

Half day in English, half in second language Beneficial for both students with limited English proficiency and students fluent in English

PA10203 Lect 7

3/31/2013

43

Learn both at • No problems with language development the same time • Good at both by preschool

One, then the other

Takes 3 to 5 years to be as good as same-age native speakers of second language

Both offer cognitive advantages of bilingualism • Attention, reasoning, concepts, flexibility • General language skills PA10203 Lect 7 3/31/2013

44

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Do children show evidence of innate cognitive abilities?

    ...Do children show evidence of innate cognitive abilities? Discuss with reference to any topic covered in the module. The nature-nurture debate is a consistently prominent area of interest in psychology and has in turn sparked a considerable number of studies investigating the extent to which our genes and the environment shape developmental pr...

    Read More
  • psychology

    ...issues of intrusion. To conclude from the above argument, indeed ethics are important in research for they build mutual trust and respect between the participants and the researcher, they serve normal goals and objectives of the research, and they protect the participants from psychological and physical harm. Ethics are important for both t...

    Read More
  • AP Psychology

    ...AP Psychology Midterm Study Guide #1 Unit 1: Psychology's History and Approaches 1.Definition of Psychology? Disciplines it is rooted in? Psychology is the science of behavior and mental process; it seeks to answer how and why we think, feel, act as we do. Psychology is rooted in philosophy and biology. 2.What is the difference between na...

    Read More
  • Psychology

    ...Research Methods of Psychology Psychological Research is conducted to obtain factual information about human behavior and mental processes to find out the underlying cause and effect relationship. Here we will discuss two out of five methods of conducting Psychological Research named: 1. Case History Method 2. Survey Method 1. CASE HIST...

    Read More
  • Evolution of Cognitive Psychology

    ...Running head: EVOLUTION OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY PAPER Evolution of Cognitive Psychology PSYCH 560 Latrice T. Colbert Julie Bruno, Psy.D September 6, 2010 Cognition is a term referring to the mental processes involved in gaining knowledge and comprehension, including thinking, knowing, remembering, judging and problem-solving. Not only...

    Read More
  • Behaviorism: Psychology and B.f. Skinner

    ...Celeste Ramos HS 103 11-29-10 Behaviorism Behaviorism is one of the many schools of theory within psychology developed to explain and explore observable behavior. Its founders describe it as a subject matter of human psychology and the behavior of humans and animals. Behaviorism argued that consciousness is neither definite nor a useable...

    Read More
  • PSY 360 3 Cindy Larson Language Paper

    ...problem-solving, creating reasons, communicating needs, and making plans. Without the existence of language the attempt for humans to achieve goals would be almost impossible to accomplish. Goals would have to be accomplished be figuring out an alternative method than language to be used for sciences, history, mathematics, and the ability to exp...

    Read More
  • Abnormal Psychology

    ...Abnormal Psychology PSYC 322-C01 Stress As a twenty-six year old man who works two full time jobs in addition to being a full time student, stress is no stranger. Stress is something, which every person deals with everyday, in every aspect of his or her lives. Stress has been defined in a multitude of ways by countless of psychologists....

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.