"Linguistics" Essays and Research Papers


LANGUAGE AND LINGUISTICS OVERVIEW • The origin of Language • Features of Language • Knowledge of Language • Linguistics • Branches of Linguistics • Approaches to Linguistic Studies • Schools of Linguistics THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE • The divine source • The natural sound source o Primitive words o Cuckoo, splash, rattle, hiss, buzz o “Bow-wow theory of language origin.” • The social interaction source • The physical adaptation source...

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Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (1999) 19, 81–104. Printed in the USA. Copyright © 1999 Cambridge University Press 0267-1905/99 $9.50 PRAGMATICS AND SLA Gabriele Kasper and Kenneth R. Rose INTRODUCTION Pragmatics has two roles in SLA: It acts as a constraint on linguistic forms and their acquisition, and it represents a type of communicative knowledge and object of L2 learning in its own right. The first role of pragmatics is evident in functionalist (Tomlin 1990) and interactionist...

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12. According to Derek Bickerton a creole language is created by: a. adults who are forced to communicate with each other over a long period of time without having a shared language b. people who need to have a secret language c. children whose linguistic input consists of a pidgin spoken in their community # 13. The fact that children are apparently capable of producing a creole language which has grammatical properties that are not present in the pidgin input can be used as evidence for: a. The...

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PAPER 6 (DESCRIPTIVE LINGUISTICS) Discuss synchronic and diachronic approaches to language. In opposition to the totally historical view of language of the previous hundred years, Ferdinand de Saussure emphasized the importance of seeing from two distinct and largely exclusive points of view, which he called "synchronic" and "diachronic". The word "chronic" has been derived from Greek word "chronos" which means time. Synchronic linguistics sees language as a living whole, existing as a state...

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schools of linguistics

matter of linguistics What is language? SET /REPERTOIRE TOOL MEANS OF INTERACTION KINESICS FLEXIBLE Creative Rule-governed Arbitrary Discrete To acquire Fully-fledged Sound /Phonetics /Phonology Word/Morphology Sentence/Syntax Meaning/Semantics Tacitly Gender Breach Finite set of rules / infinite Linguist To be under oath NEOLOGISM GURU SCHOOLS OF LINGUISTICS School /Trend /Approach /Frame of Thinking Principles / Underpinnings The History of Linguistics is split...

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Mathematics and Linguistics

Thinking Mathematically Short Essay: Understanding Mathematics and Linguistics How is Mathematics and Linguistics related with each other? Linguistics is the science of language. Linguists seek to understand the proper uses of natural human language. How languages are structured, how and why they vary and change, how they are acquired, and how people, in communicating use them. Mathematics on the other hand is the language of science. It is used to understand...

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The History of Linguistics

AND LITERATURE (PHD PROGRAM) LINGUISTICS DR VEYSEL KILIÇ ESMA ŞENEL Y1112.620021 HISTORY OF LINGUISTICS Linguistics as a study endeavors to describe and explain the human faculty of language. The history of linguistics is a branch of intellectual history, for it deals with history of ideas- ideas about language- and not directly with language itself (Law, 2003, p.2). Many histories of linguistics have been written over the last two...

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Historical Linguistics

Phonetic Symbols and Conventions The conventions for presenting examples used in this book are widely utilised in linguistics, but it will be helpful to state the more important of these for any readers unfamiliar with them. Most linguistic examples are given in italics and their glosses (translations into English) are presented in single quotes, for example: Finnish rengas 'ring'. In instances where it is necessary to make the phonetic form clear, the phonetic representation is presented in square...

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linguistics research

   Some Preliminaries about Language IV. Define the following terms: 1. Linguistics: Linguistics is generally defined as the scientific study of language. 2. Phonology: The study of how sounds are put together and used in communication is called phonology. 3. Syntax: The study of how morphemes and words are combined to form sentences is called syntax. . 4 Design features: it referred to the defining properties of human language that tell the difference between human language that tell the...

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Linguistics and Language

thorough research for scientists of various fields, mixing languages had been, until the last few decades, cast aside as its defective by-product. However, recent linguistic studies show that intermingling languages should not be considered an ill-conceived overlapping tendency that implies carelessness and a improper use of language, but a linguistic phenomenon with its own intricate rules and purposes. The addition of objectivity towards this subject has enabled linguists to describe in length the downsides...

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Linguistics Essay

Love, N. (2013). The foundations of linguistic theory : Selected writings of Roy Rarris. London: Routledge. Kaufman, B. A. (1975). Will the real Jean Piaget please stand up: An epistemological critique of three Piaget-based early childhood curricula Marchand, H. (2012). Review: Contributions of Piagetian and post-Piagetian theories to education. Educational Research Review, 7, 165-176. Morehead, D. M., Johnson, M., & Stanford Univ, CA Committee ,on Linguistics. (1972). Piaget's theory of intelligence...

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Text linguistics

Mukachevo State University Report Text linguistics Prepared by Kamenkova Nastia 2014 Text Linguistics A text is an extended structure of syntactic units i.e. text as super-sentence such as words, groups, and clauses and textual units that is marked by both coherence among the elements and completion .A non-text consists of random sequences of linguistic units such as sentences, paragraphs, or sections in any temporal and/or spatial extension. A naturally...

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Linguistic Oppression

WA1: Linguistic Oppression It only takes a few minutes to call someone out. But by changing and challenging this normalized language, you can actively work against behaviors and ideologies that are racist, sexist, homophobic, transphobic, elitist, ablist, sizist and overall, oppressive. Language oppression is any word that uses an identity or an identifier of belonging to a certain group (class, race, sexuality, ability, gender, etc.) as a negative or undesirable quality. It's a form of verbal...

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Text Linguistics

Text linguistics Module I. Classificationally meaningful characteristics of the text as an integral and independent object of investigation. Lecture 6. Conceptual variability of linguistic interpretations of the text essence and status and their reflections in the models of the text descriptions. Problem for discussion Evolution of the text description approaches. Models of the text descriptions. Grounds for the chosen models and schemes of the text descriptions...

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Spanglish & Linguistics

Spanglish is a well-known term that describes the linguistic behaviors on Spanish speakers, who’s Spanish is uniquely influenced from the English language. Spanglish can also be defined as a “mixed-code vernacular that includes a range of linguistic phenomena, most notably code-switching”. Despite the fact that Puerto Rican linguist, Salvador Tio, coined the term ‘Spanglish’ in the late 1940’s, this language contact phenomena has actually been used over the past 150 years, since the Treaty of Guadalupe...

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Linguistic Diversity

June 20, 2011 Linguistic Diversity All children deserve an early childhood program or education that recognizes and respects their family, community, and linguistic diversity. In this nation, there are children of all ethnic and cultural backgrounds. “For young children to develop and learn optimally, the early childhood professional must be prepared to meet their diverse developmental, cultural, linguistic, and educational needs. Early childhood educators face the challenge of how best...

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Properties of Language, According to Linguistics

Lin, Alan Spring 2013 Linguistics 1 Properties of Language According to Linguistics Language, we use it everyday, but what exactly defines “language?” Are there generalizations to be made of all languages? Does everyone learn language same way? What are the rules of language? “What is Language?” by Neil Smith and Deirdre Wilson answers these questions and more by highlighting the three major theories of modern linguistics. The first modern linguistic theory claims that language is govern...

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Linguistic Performance and Competence

English 50 - Introduction to the Study of Languages Name: Ryan Mark L. Catanio Submitted to: Pro. Salvacion Santander Topic: Linguistic Performance and Competence Time: MTH, 9:00 – 10:30 Linguistic Knowledge Speakers’ linguistic knowledge permits them to form longer and longer sentences by joining sentences and phases together or adding modifiers to a noun. whether you stop at three, five or eighteen adjectives, it is impossible to limit the number you could add if desired. Very long...

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What Is Cognitive Linguistics

Outline 1. Cognitive Linguistics: some basic facts 2. Branches of Cognitive Linguistics 1. Cognitive Linguistics: some basic facts What is cognitive linguistics? Cognitive linguistics is a branch of linguistics that focuses on the conceptual structures and cognitive processes that underlie linguistic representation and grammar in language. [3] Cognitive linguistics is the study of language in its cognitive function, where “cognitive” refers to the crucial role of intermediate...

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Semantics: Linguistics and Meaning

defined as a branch of linguistics; it is an area of study parallel to, and interacting with syntax and phonology. While syntax and phonology study the structure of expressive possibilities in language, semantics studies the meaning that can be expressed. Nearly all linguists have accepted a linguistic model in which semantics is at one end and phonetics at the other, with grammar somewhere in the middle. However, until recently, semantics has been the ‘Cinderella’ of linguistics, a branch that had been...

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Systemic Functional Approach to Linguistics

Systemic functional linguistics is the study of the relationship between language and its functions in social setting. In systemic functional linguistics, three strata make up the linguistic system: meaning (semantics), sound (phonology) and wording or lexicogrammar (syntax, morphology and lexis). Systemic functional linguistics treats grammar as a meaning-making resource and insists on the interrelation of form and meaning. According to Halliday, language has developed in response to...

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Linguistic Changes of an Individual in Migration

transfer the use of their existing linguistic repertoire to their host country. However, what might have been effective at home might be interpreted differently when placed in different socioeconomic contexts. Hence, the relative value of linguistic repertoire one possesses and how mobile are one’s language skills in the world determines how a migrant interacts with a new community. Consequently, this paper seeks to provide insight on how the relative value of linguistic resources affects one’s mobility...

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What Are the Fundamentals of Linguistics?

Question: What are the fundamentals in Linguistics? Explain each of them and illustrate with relevant examples. by Samuel T.T. Wee Linguistics is the science of language. All areas of language can be examined scientifically such as grammar, sounds, meaning, just to name a few. For the purposes of this essay, I shall limit the fundamentals of linguistics to the following: phonetics and phonology, pragmatics, semantics, discourse morphology and syntax. Phonetics and Phonology Pronunciation can be...

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Semasiology: Linguistics and Grammatical Meaning

Semasiology By definition Lexicology deals with words, word-forming morphemes (derivational affixes) and word-groups or phrases. All these linguistic units may be said to have meaning of some kind: they are all significant and therefore must be investigated both as to form and meaning. The branch of lexicology that is devoted to the study of meaning is known as Semasiology. Semasiology from Greek word sēmasia (“signification”) + logos (“account”).The branch of lexicology which is so called...

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Pre-Linguistic Development

Pre-linguistic Development As linguistic development designates the stage when children are able to manipulate verbal symbols, it should be apparent that pre-linguistic development refers to the stage before the child is able to manipulate such symbols. Consequently, this stage is sometimes called the pre-symbolic stage. Pre-linguistic development, therefore, concerns itself with precursors to the development of symbolic skills and typically covers the period from birth to around 13 months of age...

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Linguistics and Stylistic Analysis

Definition: • Halliday defines a stylistician as someone who can comprehend literary texts through a comprehension of their language structures. literary texts language structures. • Basically, this means that Halliday defines stylistics as: “The linguistic analysis of literary texts.” What is involved in stylistic analysis? 1. A literary text is looked at as made of language 2. A literary text is seen to consist of patterns and properties which are part of language 3. Those patterns of language...

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An Assignment on the Linguistic Acquisition Device

An Assignment on the Linguistic Acquisition Device Question One In linguistics, language acquisition is the process through which human beings obtain the capability to comprehend and perceive language as well as produce sentences and words and utilize them to communicate. According to Chomsky, his Linguistic Acquisition Device (LAD) encompassed a device that children were born that could be defined as the inborn ability to comprehend the language principles. This LAD fits his innateness Hypothesis...

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Linguistics Lecture

What’s up? • Dr. Anderson’s T & W drop-in hours switched (check Avenue!) Tutorials begin Monday! • Linguistics 1A03 Introduction to Linguistics 1 Lecture 1B 14 September 2012 • submit your homework in your tutorial! • • web>clicker? textbook e-resources? Today’s Objective • Begin to understand the fundamental ways of thinking in Linguistics. Some properties of grammar • • • creativity generality parity Some properties of grammar: Parity ✦ all grammars are...

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Heteroglossia - Langue and Linguistic Variation

Heteroglossia - Langue and linguistic variation Bakhtin developed the notion in contrast with the structuralist account of language, which was centered in the notion of langue, that is, the systematic set of rules determining the well-formedness of an expression or utterance. This concept, introduced by Saussure, emphasised the notion that the code conformed by the linguistic norms must be common to all speakers for communication to be possible. This was seen as a dangerous simplification by Bakhtin...

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Goals of Linguistic

this scientific work (from time to time). However, it has apparently not been done. I will therefore abide by taking a common-sense approach to the problem, informed both by some epistemology of linguistics and by some experience with linguistic work. 1.2. Fundamentals Like any human activity, linguistics has a place in a teleonomic hierarchy (see teleonomische Hierarchie) which is headed by its ultimate goals. Science is the pursuit of objective knowledge/understanding (Greek epistēmē, German Erkenntnis)...

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Language: Linguistics and Mother Tongue

February. This celebration is designed to promote linguistic diversity and multilingual education, to highlight greater awareness of the importance of mother tongue education. Multilingualism is a source of strength and opportunity for humanity. It embodies our cultural diversity and encourages the exchange of views, the renewal of ideas and the broadening of our capacity to imagine. Irina Bokova, UNESCO Director General Linguistic and cultural diversity represent universal values that...

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Psychological and Linguistic Thinking

still being proposed in the present time. Such theories have generally arisen out of major disciplines such as psychology and linguistics. Psychological and linguistic thinking have profoundly influenced one another and the outcome of language acquisition theories alike. This article aims to discuss language acquisition theories and assess their implications for applied linguistics and for a possible theory of foreign/second language teaching and the reason why such a distinction has been made in this...

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Linguistics and Oral Approach

bad habits • language skills are learned more effectively if they are presented orally first, then in written form • analogy is a better foundation for language learning than analysis • the meanings of words can be learned only in a linguistic and cultural context SLT objectives Situational Language Teaching aims at the achievement of these objectives: • a practical command of the four basic skills of a language, through structure • accuracy in both pronunciation and grammar ...

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Linguistics and Speakers Practice Code-switching

attention and been studied from a variety of perspectives. Code-switching is a linguistics term denoting the concurrent use of more than one language, or language variety, in conversation. Multilinguals, people who speak more than one language, sometimes use elements of multiple languages in conversing with each other. Thus, code-switching is the syntactically and phonologically appropriate use of more than one linguistic variety. Speakers form and establish a pidgin language when two or more speakers...

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Sec 1 Formalist And Functionalist Of Linguistics

FORMALIST FUNCTIONALIS T OF LINGUISTICS Siti Rabiatul Noorjan bt M. Saadom Aida Zukrina bt Zulkefly FORMALIST     Also known as generative linguistics “Language as a system of rules” Language is a set of sentences Description shows which sentences are in the set and which out REF ; martin 1992,3 NOAM CHOMSKY Chomsky Linguistic Theory  Structure of language   formalism concentrates on the set of rules a language has (competence), and not on the usage of this set when producing phrases...

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the indian linguistic philosophies


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Cognitive Studies as the Direction of Modern Linguistics

COGNITIVE STUDIES AS THE DIRECTION OF MODERN LINGUISTICS At the end of the 20th century linguistics applied to anthropocentric paradigm of knowledge including among other things presentation about the human factor in the language [4, 2001:15]. The cognitive linguistics is the study of how the person operates the symbols, while coming to understanding the world and themselves in the world, the subject matter of which is the human mind, the thinking and the mental processes and conditions...

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Code Switching in Society as the Product of Linguistics

PRODUCT OF LINGUISTICS By: Agnechia Friska Rivalny/ 126332055 Introduction In the society, we always interact with other people around us. When people interact with others at anytime and anywhere they must use a language. Without a language, people will find some troubles when they do their activities and toward the others. There is no people or society without a language. The role of a language among the people in this life is very crucial. The study of linguistics reveals that...

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Power and Inequality in a Cultural and Linguistic Anthropolistic View

Discuss how anthropologists can investigate issues surrounding power and inequality in modern human populations. In your essay, discuss how power and inequality is investigated by linguistic anthropologists and/or cultural anthropologists. Centuries have passed and the different relationships of power and inequality are still present. Power and inequality have always been an issue and a topic of discussion among many different people in different cultures. Although much has changed throughout...

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Linguistics and Children

from different socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds used language in school and out-of-school settings. Implications of this research have been widely discussed and interpreted in a variety of ways. Basil Bernstein (1971) documented the different linguistic codes used by children from lower- and middle-income families in England. Lower-income children were described as using a “restricted code” or highly contextualized language, while children from middle-income families used an “elaborated code,”...

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Nature of Linguistic Sign by Ferdinand de Saussure

Nature of the Linguistic Sign Ferdinand de Saussure 1. Sign, Signified Signifier Some people regard language, when reduced to its elements as a naming-process only--a list of words, each corresponding to the thing that it names. For example: operation--an assumption that is anything but true. But this rather naive approach can bring us near the truth by showing us that the linguistic unit is a double entity, one formed by the associating of two terms. We This conception is open to criticism...

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Linguistics III Set 1: Cross linguistic influence and learner language Psychological principles of SLA form the foundation stones for building a comprehensible understanding of the acquisition of the linguistic system. The studies was centered on the contrasts between the native lang and the target lang (contrastive analysis) and the effect of the native on the target lang (cross linguistic influence). 1-The contrastive analysis Hypothesis It’s the study of two languages in contrast. Based...

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Discuss the definition of Language and the linguistic concepts of competence and performance.

PERFORMANCE Noam Chomsky introduced two terms, referred to as competence and performance. According to Chomsky, competence refers to a native speaker's knowledge of a language (Finch 2000, p.17). As native speakers of English, for example, we have linguistic competence of the English language sounds, sentence structures and word meanings. This knowledge allows speakers to speak the language fluently. However, this knowledge is for the most part subconscious and, as a result, the speaker does not always...

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meaningful messages or receive and understand messages. ‘How is language organised in order to be meaningful?’ This is the question we ask and attempt to answer at the level of semantics. Semantics is that level of linguistic analysis where meaning is analysed. It is the most abstract level of linguistic analysis, since we cannot see or observe meaning as we can observe and record sounds. Meaning is related very closely to the human capacity to think logically and to understand. So when we try to analyse meaning...

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APPLIED LINGUISTICS A Paper “APPLIED LINGUISTIC AND LANGUAGE LEARNING” Submitted as Final Assignment Diki Atmarizon 2013/1304071 ENGLISH EDUCATION SECTION GRADUATE PROGRAM STATE UNIVERSITY OF PADANG 2013 I. INTRODUCTION Today, linguistics is developed rapidly. Another aspect related to the fields of language study is also growing. Studies on language not only covers one aspect only, but has extended to areas or aspects outside the language associated with the use...

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Aplied Linguistics, L1 and L2

Reading Worksheet 1: Read the extract Applied Linguistics: An emerging discipline for the twenty-first century in your reading packs and answers the following questions: 1. On the basis of the information provided by Grabe, complete the following chart. Which conclusions can you draw regarding the scope of Applied Linguistics? |Decade |Focus of Applied Linguistics | | |Insights...

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The Scope of Applied Linguistics

Defining Applied Linguistics and its scope Applied linguistics it seems to be a not very easy concept to define, because many people would think different things when it comes to applied linguistics. Indeed, for many years those who carry out applied linguistics seem do not agree upon a universal definition. However, what it is true for all of them is the fact that there is a gap that needs to be filled in terms of defining applied linguistics. The definition of the problem is probably due to...

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[pic] [pic] Linguistics Chapter 1 Invitations to Linguistics 1.1 Why study language? 1. Language is very essential to human beings. 2. In language there are many things we should know. 3. For further understanding, we need to study language scientifically. 1.2 What is language? Language is a means of verbal communication. It is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. 1.3 Design features of language The features that define our human languages can be called...

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How does sociolinguistics fit into the scope of applied linguistics?

Upon reading the introduction in Wardhaugh (2006) I find myself aligned with the author, Gumperz (1971) Chambers, and Coulmas (1997, as cited in Wardhaugh, 2006). We ought to be looking at the outcomes of how the social environment interacts with linguistic structure. I think that Coulmas really hit on a point when he/she stated the division of macro and micro was somewhat contrived. I would like to add to that and say that I believe looking at language without context is like finding fools gold and...

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Stylistics is the study and interpretation of texts from a linguistic perspective. As a discipline it links literary criticism and linguistics, but has no autonomous domain of its own.[1][2] The preferred object of stylistic studies is literature, but not exclusively "high literature" but also other forms of written texts such as text from the domains of advertising, pop culture, politics or religion.[3] Stylistics also attempts to establish principles capable of explaining the particular choices...

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Applied Linguistics - 1

wording is why a literary text loses so much in paraphrase or translation. However, despite this importance of precise wording, the meanings of literary works are often disturbingly imprecise. Apparently, the linguistics choices in literature are not the concern of applied linguistics. It does not have the same kind of direct social and economic consequences as language education policy, or the spread of English as lingua franca. Yet, it is wrong to decrease the value of the impact and importance...

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"Social Linguistics And Literacy" by James Paul Gee

This is a little summary of the essay. In this report James Paul Gee (1996) from his book Social Linguistics And Literacy has given the idea that literacy is not just the ability to read and write but it is mush more than that. It is the knowledge of different "discourses" which are part of our personalities and the knowledge of the beliefs and values connected to these discourses. He also gives the idea of a liberating literacy which "can be used as a meta-language or a meta- discourse ( a set...

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scope of applied linguistics

The Scope of Applied Linguistics: AL, according to Corder 1974 is the utilization of the knowledge about the nature of language achieved by linguistics research for the improvement of the efficiency of some practical task in which language is a central component. 1. Language and Teaching Approaches & Methods Grammar Translation Method (GTM): Classes are conducted in the mother tongue. This method depends on memorization of lists of new vocabulary in isolation (i.e. no context provided).Great...

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Linguistic Perspectives and Existential Anxiety in Arun Kolatkar’s Poems

Linguistic Perspectives and Existential Anxiety in Arun Kolatkar’s Poems  This paper focuses on the linguistic perspective and existential anxiety in Arun Kolatkar’s poems. Arun Kolatkar is not a familiar name for many of us, in fact until he was included in the undergraduate syllabus of English Honours by West Bengal State University two years ago he was not known to us. Arun Balkrishna Kolatkar (1932 –2004) was a poet from Maharashtra, wrote in both Marathi and English. Radically experimental...

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Linguistic Rights

Linguistic rights (or language rights or linguistic human rights) are the human and civil rights concerning the individual and collective right to choose the language or languages for communication in a private or public atmosphere. Other parameters for analyzing linguistic rights includes degree of territoriality, amount of positivity, orientation in terms of assimilation or maintenance, and overtness. Linguistic rights include, among others, the right to one's own language in legal, administrative...

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Use of language and linguistics in The Poisonwood Bible by Barbara Kingsolver

terrify.' Nelson spent part of an afternoon demonstrating to me that fine linguistic difference while we scraped chicken manure from the nest boxes. No one has yet explained it to the Reverend. He is not of a mind to receive certain news. Perhaps he should clean more chicken houses". This confusion undoubtedly contributed to the failure of Nathan Price's mission in the Congo, how surprising it is that such small linguistic errors can have such an effect. The title of the book, The Poisonwood Bible...

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Linguistic Cues for Children

How does linguistic variation cue representations of a speaker’s social identity and, presumably, stereotypes about relevant social groups? Although studies have indicated that phonetic variation in speech may activate social stereotypes (Purnell, Idsardi & Baugh, 1999), research on the mechanisms of this process has been scant. The term “stereotype” was introduced into the variations of sociolinguistic literature in Labov’s (1973) taxonomy of language forms charged with broad social meaning, reprised...

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Position paper Linguistic diversity creates a sense of cultural identity in an increasingly individualistic world and should therefore be preserved Introduction: In many ways, language provides a sense of identity. We establish our identity through our use of language. Language is so deeply embedded in culture that cultural identity is defined to a great extent in terms of language. In a more and more globalizing and individualistic world, this means...

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importance and uses of contrastive linguistics

 TERM PAPER :CONTRASTIVE LINGUISTICS Introduction: Contrastive Linguistics, roughly defined as a subdiscipline of linguistics which is concerned with the comparison of two or more (subsystems of) languages, has long been associated primarily with language teaching. Apart from this applied aspect, however, it also has a strong theoretical purpose, contributing to our understanding of language typology and language universals.   The study of two languages in contrast, here called contrastive...

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Linguistics, though one of the youngest behavioral sciences, has a background extending over several millennia. During this period scholars with various interests have concerned themselves with language. Some of the most readable treatises on language were produced by the Greeks and Romans, such as Plato’s Cratylus and Quintilian’s advice to an orator. Much of our terminology was devised in the course of this earlier concern. Any of introductions to linguistic cannot, therefore, limit itself to one...

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