•The origin of Language
•Features of Language
•Knowledge of Language
•Branches of Linguistics
•Approaches to Linguistic Studies
•Schools of Linguistics
THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE
•The divine source
•The natural sound source o Primitive words
o Cuckoo, splash, rattle, hiss, buzz
o“Bow-wow theory of language origin.”
•The social interaction source
•The physical adaptation source
•The tool-making source
•The genetic source
oChild development è Automatic
oDeaf children è Fluent users of sign language è innateness hypothesis
oWe are born with a capacity for speaking/using language
•(See Yule, Ch.1; Fromkin et al., Ch.6)
MAJOR FEATURES OF HUMAN LANGUAGE
1-Communicative : function of language is to communicate
2-Vocal : human vocal organs are used
3-Human : sophisticated use of language is unique to human species 4-Social : it ıs used by the members of a community
5-Natural : ıt is a natural phenomena
6-Changeable : it can and will change trough time
7-Rule-governed : there are systematic rules in it.
8-Product of mind : it is the product of mental operation
9-Arbitrary : no systematic relationship between form and meaning 10-Creative : language is used creatively
MINOR FEATURES OF LANGUAGE
1-Language , unless recorded, flies away the movement we speak it. 2-Self-talk is a form of language
3-We talk in our minds : inner speech
4-We can not help but to process and understand what we hear. 5-Language can be used by some to xert their power over others. 6-Language is used for cultural preservation and transmission . 7-Language is varied : not monolithic.
8-The direction of changes in language is not predictable.
9-Language is personal as well as social.
10-Language is a means for mental and social development.
11-Language is a predictor of social identity.
12-Language reveals patterns of how mind works.
13-All languages have the same potential for development
KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE
•“I know English.”
•Produce individual sounds and combining them (Phonetics & Phonology);
•Form and dividing words (Morphology);
•Combine these words into phrases and sentences (Syntax);
•Understand the meaning of words, phrases and utterances (Semantics);
•Use the language appropriately in different contexts (Pragmatics).
Language is an arbitrary and changeable set of vocal symbols which are cognitively formulated, and socially used for human natural communication.
Linguistic knowledge is knowledge about language which is acquired unconsciously.
• Linguistics is the scientific or logical examination of any aspect and property of language including the influences of language on any sphere of life.
BRANCHES OF LINGUISTICS
Phonology (Ses Bilimi)
Morphology (Dil Bilimi)
Syntax (Söz dizimi)
Semantics (Anlam Bilim)
APPROACHES TO LINGUISTIC STUDIES
SCHOOLS OF LINGUISTICS
•Based on study of Latin
•Applied to other languages, e.g. English, French
•19th C. Jacob Grimm, Max Müller, Henry Sweet
•Ferdinand De Saussure
•Linguistics features as abstract system governing speech
•Langue and parole
•While language is regarded as language system stored in the mind of its speakers, parole is conceived as the actual language behavior
•Every language has a finite set of rules to produce infinite number of sentences;
• Phrase structure rules and generative rules;
•Deep structure and surface structure;
•Structure over meaning;
•Competence and performance.