top-rated free essay


By betulahiska Mar 27, 2013 566 Words


The origin of Language

Features of Language

Knowledge of Language


Branches of Linguistics

Approaches to Linguistic Studies

Schools of Linguistics


The divine source

The natural sound source o Primitive words

o Cuckoo, splash, rattle, hiss, buzz

o“Bow-wow theory of language origin.”

The social interaction source

The physical adaptation source

The tool-making source

The genetic source

oChild development è Automatic

oDeaf children è Fluent users of sign language è innateness hypothesis

oWe are born with a capacity for speaking/using language

(See Yule, Ch.1; Fromkin et al., Ch.6)


1-Communicative : function of language is to communicate
2-Vocal : human vocal organs are used
3-Human : sophisticated use of language is unique to human species 4-Social : it ıs used by the members of a community
5-Natural : ıt is a natural phenomena
6-Changeable : it can and will change trough time
7-Rule-governed : there are systematic rules in it.
8-Product of mind : it is the product of mental operation
9-Arbitrary : no systematic relationship between form and meaning 10-Creative : language is used creatively

1-Language , unless recorded, flies away the movement we speak it. 2-Self-talk is a form of language
3-We talk in our minds : inner speech
4-We can not help but to process and understand what we hear. 5-Language can be used by some to xert their power over others. 6-Language is used for cultural preservation and transmission . 7-Language is varied : not monolithic.

8-The direction of changes in language is not predictable.
9-Language is personal as well as social.
10-Language is a means for mental and social development.
11-Language is a predictor of social identity.
12-Language reveals patterns of how mind works.
13-All languages have the same potential for development


“I know English.”

Produce individual sounds and combining them (Phonetics & Phonology);

Form and dividing words (Morphology);

Combine these words into phrases and sentences (Syntax);

Understand the meaning of words, phrases and utterances (Semantics);

Use the language appropriately in different contexts (Pragmatics).

Language is an arbitrary and changeable set of vocal symbols which are cognitively formulated, and socially used for human natural communication.

Linguistic knowledge is knowledge about language which is acquired unconsciously.


• Linguistics is the scientific or logical examination of any aspect and property of language including the influences of language on any sphere of life.



Phonetics (Fonetik)

Phonology (Ses Bilimi)

Morphology (Dil Bilimi)

Syntax (Söz dizimi)

Semantics (Anlam Bilim)







Anthropological Linguistics

Applied Linguistics




Reference Grammar

Teaching Grammar

Theoretical Grammar


Traditional Linguistics

Based on study of Latin

Applied to other languages, e.g. English, French

19th C. Jacob Grimm, Max Müller, Henry Sweet

Structural Linguistics

Ferdinand De Saussure

Linguistics features as abstract system governing speech

Langue and parole
While language is regarded as language system stored in the mind of its speakers, parole is conceived as the actual language behavior

-Generative Grammar


Every language has a finite set of rules to produce infinite number of sentences;

• Phrase structure rules and generative rules;

Deep structure and surface structure;

Structure over meaning;

Competence and performance.

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Linguistics and Structuralism

    ...from that applied to Radcliffe-Brown – it involves more the bio and psychological aspect of human studies rather than social structures. Claude Levi-Strauss was the one to pioneer structuralism; he suggested that cultural phenomena such as myths, art, kinship systems and language display certain ordered patterns or structures. With these, he be...

    Read More
  • Psychological and Linguistic Thinking

    ... Semantic memory: These are memories of facts, concepts, names, and other general knowledge information. 2. Discuss the different theories on language acquisition. As our country becomes more multicultural, how can these theories aid our children and/or you in learning...

    Read More
  • Psycholinguistics: Linguistics and Language Production

    ...divided language production into four stages, conceptualization, formulation, articulation and self-monitoring. Conceptualization is the first step in language production. It means how to conceptualize the speech in our mind. The theory of the American psycholinguist, David McNeill , says that primitive linguistic concepts are f...

    Read More
  • Linguistics and Oral Approach

    ...behavioristic stand to language learning. It dealt with the processes rather than the conditions of learning. These processes englobe  three stages: 1. recieving the knwoledge or material 2. fixing it in memory by repetition 3. and using it in actual practice until it becomes a personal skill. The principles of the behavioristic th...

    Read More
  • Linguistics

    ...‘motherese’ in language acquisition c. The Poverty of stimulus argument for innateness 11. Imagine the following scenario: Some Japanese people come to Mexico to do business. None of them speaks Spanish, and none of their Mexican partners speaks Japanese. There is no other language that these two groups have in common. Therefore, they have ...

    Read More
  • Linguistics

    ...used simple sentences, but only the adult learners were able to keep the conversation going than the young learners. Krashen (1981) states that the fundamental principle in SLA is the comprehensive input. Adults need less help than children because comprehensive input grows as we age. This is the language input factor of SLA. In Piaget's Cognit...

    Read More
  • Linguistics Essay

    ...Nelson, J. (2013). Avram Noam Chomsky and his Cognitive Development Theory Online Submission. Harris, R., & Love, N. (2013). The foundations of linguistic theory : Selected writings of Roy Rarris. London: Routledge. Kaufman, B. A. (1975). Will the real Jean Piaget please stand up: An epistemological critique of three Piaget-based early childh...

    Read More
  • Intro to Linguistics

    ...31.10.2011 What is Linguistics? The study of human languages; including the influence of one language on another; how language and words are formed and change within time; the rules of the language- how words are formed, the structure of sentences and words; relationship between culture and language; how language is acquired- the process of l...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.