Literature review - Anxiety and Depression in the Workplace

Topics: Employment, Psychology, Mental disorder Pages: 9 (3365 words) Published: October 12, 2013

Literature Review
Executive Summary:
Emotional concerns in the workplace are a considerable loss to employee’s health and welfare. They slow down the performance of employee and so they are harmful to the organisational well-being as well. This literature review would put forward a concise introduction on the two frequently occurring emotional concerns in the workplace: anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression are a usual and adaptive reaction to the individual who is undergoing such emotional problems in our surroundings. They are a normal part of life, and would take place at any time when there are considerable positive or negative changes in one’s life. In general, it is believed that some of the anxiety and depression are challenging and positive one but some are negative where the individuals feel difficult to handle it. Anxiety and depression would take place in personal life as well as work life. This literature review is mainly focused on how an employee who is suffering from anxiety and depression should behave and at the same time how managers should handle the situations when his/her employee is suffering from anxiety and depression. Analyzations and insinuations of such emotional problems are discussed in this review. Moreover, this literature review is endowed with sensible understanding in support of recognizing and dealing with the anxiety and depression in the workplace. This review also focuses on the role of manager as supporter to the employees by taking necessary initiative steps to decrease the possibilities of anxiety and depression in the workplace. Defining Depression and Anxiety:

Defining the term ‘depression’ is very complex because of the involvement of intrinsic uncertainty. According to , ‘ depression can be witnessed as a condition of mood, as a special symptom manifesting itself in many different mental disorders, as a syndrome measured by depression rating scales, and as a clinical diagnosis operationalised in diagnostic classifications’. (Weiten, 2001) and (Barlow, 2005), who are the psychology book writers, highlighted the debilitating effect that depression has on an individual which was agreed by different researchers and scholars. Through his findings, Blair stated that depression is severely debilitating and the most common mental health disorder affecting society. This was further detailed in 2000 by Akiskal that irregular depressive mood experienced as low spirits, dejection, and sadness can be a normal reaction to disappointments, adversities, and losses and should be differentiated from depressive disorders, which represent actual psychological illness and are often accompanied by distinct impairment of psychological, somatic, and social functioning . Bender and Furman agreed with Blair and came to the conclusion in 2003 that depression was found to probably be incurable and had raised to become the world’s number one public health problem . An American judge held that depression is a misleading term for an extremely debilitating illness. (Seligman, et al.,) defined anxiety as  “ psychological and physiological state characterized by by somatic, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components”. Davison stated that “it is the displeasing feeling of fear and concern” .  Depression and Anxiety in the work place:

In the present status of the economy, anxiety and depression in the workplace are the rising concerns where the employees are facing more and more situations of work overload, no job safety, no job satisfaction, and lack of self-sufficiency. Depression has significant economic impacts relative to lost productivity within the workplace . Workplace anxiety and depression have been exposed to have unfavorable impacts on employees’ health, well-being, workplace productivity, absenteeism, and workplace performance. Lost productivity involves presenteeism, in which the employee is present in the work setting but productivity is reduced due to health concerns or...

References: 1. Canadian Mental Health Association. (2009). Coping with too much stress. Retrieved 2012, from
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3. Akiskal, H. S. (2000). Mood disorders: clinical features. In B. J. Sadock, & V. A. Sadock, Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (7 ed., Vol. 1, pp. 1338–1377). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
4. Barlow, D. H., & Durand, M. V. (2005). Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach.
6. Bender, K., & Furman, R. (2003). The Social Problem of Depression: A Multi-theoretical Analysis. 30 Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare , 123 .
7. Blair, D. A. (1999). Employees Suffering from Bipolar Disorder or Clinical Depression: Fighting an Uphill Battle for Protection Under Title 1 of the Americans with Disabilities Act. 12 Seton Hall Law Review , 1347.
8. Clark, J. (2002). Stress: A management guide. London: Spiro Press.
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12. Eyers, K., & Parker, G. (2011). Tackling Depression At Work: A Practical Guide for Employees and Managers. New York: Routledge.
13. Frew, J. (2004). Motivating and leading dysfunctional employees. In J. C. Thomas, & M. Hersen (Eds.), Psychopathology in the workplace: Recognition and adaptation (pp. 293-311). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
15. Healey, J. (2006). Anxiety and depression. Thirroul, N.S.W.: Spinney Press.
16. Hayes, J. (2011). Dealing with Anxiety and Depression in the Workplace. Retrieved 2012, from
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18. Jonathan, B., & Amy, L. (2010). Work Makes Me Nervous: Overcome Anxiety and Build the Confidence to Succeed. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,.
19. Lehtinen, V., & Joukamaa, M. (1994). Epidemiology of depression: Prevalence, risk factors and treatment situation. Acta Psychiatr Scand 89 (Suppl 377) , 7–10.
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21. Mitchell, W. R., & Rochelle, B. (1995). Performance Anxiety: Overcoming Your Fear in the Workplace, Social Situations, Interpersonal Communications, The Performing Arts. Holbrook, Massachusetts: Adams Publishing
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24. Prien, E. P., Goodstein, L. D., Goodstein, J., & Gamble, L. G. (2009). A practical guide to job analysis. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
26. Thomas, J. C., & Hersen, M. (2004). Psychopathology in the workplace: Recognition and Adaption. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
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30. Weiten, W. (2001). Psychology: Themes and Variations (5 ed.).
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