This paper is focused on two separate case studies:First Case Study: Jack and Lauren have two Children named as Makayla aged 18 Months and Christopher aged 5 years. The local Authorities and Children 's Services have a referral from a relative who is concerned that the Children had witnessed Jack and Lauren fighting. What is more Jack brings people back to the house who drink heavily and Lauren has left the children alone at least twice to get drugs. When seen the children appear adequately dressed, clean, healthy and outgoing, and Christopher is attending school most days. The house is sparsely furnished but tidy and there appear to be a small number of toys. Makayla may have a development delay. She also may have difficulties with hearing and vision, which have meant numerous medical appointments, some of which have been missed.
Second Case Study: Gracias speaks with pride of her house in which she and her husband raised seven children and points to the antiques she has collected.
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