Factors Affecting Enzymes
The activity of an Enzyme is affected by its environmental conditions. Changing these alter the rate of reaction caused by the enzyme. In nature, organisms adjust the conditions of their enzymes to produce an Optimum rate of reaction, where necessary, or they may have enzymes which adapted to function well in extreme conditions where they live.Increasing temperature increases the Kinetic Energy. In a fluid, this means that there are more random collisions between molecules. Since enzymes catalyse reactions by randomly colliding with Substrate molecules, increasing temperature increases the rate of reaction, forming more product. Increasing temperature also increases the vibrations that enzymes have, specifically in this case enzyme molecules, which puts strain on the bonds that hold them together. As temperature increases, more bonds, especially the weaker ones, will break as a result of this strain. Breaking bonds within the enzyme will cause the Active Site to change shape. This change in shape means that the Active Site is less complementary to the shape of the Substrate, so that it is less likely to catalyse the reaction. Eventually, the enzyme will become denatured and will no longer function.As temperature increases, more enzymes' active sites' shapes will become less complementary to the shape of their Substrate, and more enzymes will be denatured. This will decrease the rate of reaction.In summary, as temperature increases, initially the rate of reaction will increase, because of increased Kinetic Energy. However, the effect of bond breaking will become greater and greater, and the rate of reaction decrease. The temperature at which the maximum rate of reaction occurs is called the enzyme's optimum temperature. This varies for different enzymes. Most enzymes in the human body have an optimum temperature of around 37.0 °C (this includes protease.)H+ and OH- Ions are charged and therefore interfere with Hydrogen and Ionic bonds...
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