1. Enzymes and what is their function?
a. Enzyme: biological catalysts that regulate chemical reactions that occur in cells. Responsible for things such as converting food to energy, replace old damaged tissues, disposal of cellular waste products. Are responsible for lowering the activation energy.
2. Most enzymes are proteins with three-dimensional shapes determined by their amino acid sequence.
3. Substrate – is a reactant molecule that binds to the highly specific active site of an enzyme and an enzyme-substrate complex is formed.
4. Enzyme-substrate complex – modifies the substrate’s chemical bonds and initiates a series of chemical reactions resulting in the formation of a product.
5. Transition state – point during a chemical reaction where the molecule is no longer a substrate but not yet a product.
6. Energy of activation – amount of energy needed to being a reaction
7. Active site – highly specific site where reactants that match the activation site can bind to the enzyme.
8. Products – what is formed from the enzyme substrate complex
9. Effects of temp. and pH on enzymes
a. Temperature affects the rate at which substrate and enzyme molecules collide. If the temperature is greater than the optimal the activation site denatures which makes binding more difficult. Lower temps make it so that the enzymes and substrates attach at a slower rate, diminishing product formation.
b. pH affects enzymes by changing the charge of the R-groups on the enzymes, ionic bonds between amino acids. Denaturation occurs.
10. Optimal conditions – the conditions that an enzyme works best at including pH, substrate concentration, salt concentration, presence of inhibitors, activators and cofactors and temperature.
11. Amylase catabolizes starch polymers into smaller subunits. Most organisms use these saccharides as a food source and to store energy. Amylase can be found in the saliva of humans and other mammals. (starch > sugar)