Enzyme Induced Fit Model and Activation Energy
Role of Enzymes:
Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts during a biochemical process. Catalysts are non-changing enzymes that can increase or decrease activation energy to accelerate or slow down a biochemical reaction without using additional energy.
Enzymes break down molecules in our body faster than they would normally break down without enzymes.
On the biochemical level, enzymes work at precise temperatures and pH levels. When the temperature goes up, enzyme activity speeds up. When temperatures decrease, enzyme activity slows down. If an enzyme is at too high of a temperature, it stops functioning. Stomach enzymes function in a more acidic environment (low pH) and intestinal enzymes work in a more alkaline environment (high pH).
Enzymes only react with substrates that are specific to that enzyme. When a substrate is accepted by the enzyme, the end result is a product. This product becomes the substrate for the next enzyme in the pathway.
Importance of Aldolase B Enzyme
-Glucose and fructose are the components that make up sugar (sucrose).
-In order to make ATP (energy), glucose and fructose need to go through glycolysis and enter the Krebs cycle.
-Fructose needs enzymes to break it down further, before it can enter the glycolysis process.
-Initially, fructose is broken down by the enzyme fructokinase into fructose-1-phosphate.
-The substrate fructose-1-phosphate (F-1-P) is then further broken down by an enzyme aldose B to form two products—DHAP and glyceraldehyde. These two products are what enter glycolysis to make ATP.
(Hudon-Miller, Enzymes, 2012)
In hereditary glucose intolerance (HFI), there is a mutation of the aldolase B enzyme which prevents it from functioning. If aldolase b isn’t available to breakdown F-1-P, then the by-products (DHAP and glyceraldehyde) do not enter the Krebs cycle to form ATP (energy).
References: Energy III-Cellular Respiration. (2009). https://wikispaces.psu.edu. Retrieved from https://wikispaces.psu.edu/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=40045009 High Fructose Intolerance. (n.d.). Panopto Viewer. Retrieved from http://wgu.hosted.panopto.com/Panopto/Pages/Viewer/Default.aspx?id=4b4de18d-60f5-4866-a77c-b673ce51aab6 Hudon-Miller, S. (2012). Cori Cycle. YouTube. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/gWXDNBiLva4 Hudon-Miller, S. (2012). Enzymes and Fructose Breakdown. YouTube. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eRepj3rA4AQ&feature=youtu.be Ophardt, C. (2003). Citric Acid Cycle Reactions. http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/. Retrieved from http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/611citricrx.html Sanders, J. (2013) Electron transport chain. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/VV1PLO6ckbY The Cori Cycle. (n.d.). Concepts in Biochemistry - Interactive Animations. Retrieved from http://www.wiley.com/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/cori_cycle/cori_cycle.htm Wolfe, G. (2000). Thinkwell Biochemistry. Retrieved from http://wgu.thinkwell.com/students/getResources.cfm?levelFourID=5869644&levelThreeID=1820584&levelTwoID=350660&mode=browse