BSC2085L Anatomy Quiz 1

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BSC2085L Anatomy Quiz 1
BSC2085L Anatomy-Physiology 1 Lab
Quiz 1 Study Guide

Anatomical position is the reference position we use for all anatomical descriptions.
Directional Terminology:
Superior – Above
Inferior – Below
Superficial – Closer to the surface
Deep – Farther away from the surface
Proximal – Closer to the point of attachment or origin
Distal – Farther away from the point of attachment or origin
Medial – Toward the midline of the body or organ
Lateral – Away from the midline of the body or organ
Anatomical Planes:
A sagittal plane divides the body or organ into right and left sections.
A frontal plane divides the body or organ into anterior and posterior sections.
A transverse plane divides the body or organ into superior and inferior sections.
Body cavities:
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Tissues are composed of cells.
Cells contain organelles and molecules.
Molecules are composed of atoms.
The diaphragm controls the size of the opening in the condenser, thus controlling the amount of light passing through the condenser to reach the slide.
You should never use the coarse adjustment knob while using the 45x/40x/100x objective lens.
The Cell:
The nucleus contains the cell's genetic material.
The centrioles form the spindle fibers necessary for cell division
The Golgi Complex manufactures carbohydrates.
The ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis.
Lysosomes contain very powerful digestive enzymes.
The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell.

Membrane Transport:
Passive mechanism: Do not require energy
Osmosis is the net diffusion of water across a membrane from a region of high concentration to low concentration. Diffusion is the movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.
Active mechanism: Require energy
Endocytosis is bringing substances into the cell by way of membrane-bound vesicles.
Phagocytosis- “cell eating”
Pinocytosis- “cell drinking”
Exocytosis is expelling substances from the cell in membrane-bound
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A red blood cell placed in a hypotonic solution will burst (lyse).
A red blood cell placed in an isotonic solution will remain the same (will not swell or shrink).
The Cell Cycle:
G1(growth 1), S(synthesis), and G2(growth 2) phases are collectively called interphase.
Prophase – the nuclear envelope disintegrates and centrioles migrate to opposite poles of the cell.
Metaphase – the spindle fibers push the chromotid pairs toward the middle of the cell.
Anaphase – the centromeres split in half and the chromotids of a pair are pulled by the spindle fibers towards opposite poles.
Telophase – Nuclear envelope forms around each cluster of chromatids and the spindle fibers disintegrate.
The four layers of the epidermis from the deepest layer to the most superficial layer is stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratus granulosum, stratum corneum.
Even though the sebacious glands and sudoriferous glands have ducts that open onto the skin surface or a hair follicle, the actual glands are located in the dermis.
The epidermis is composed of a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Just like other epithelia, it is avascular (without blood

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