cell and cancer worksheet

Topics: Mitosis, Cell cycle, Cancer Pages: 6 (680 words) Published: October 21, 2014

Virtual Lab: The Cell Cycle and Cancer
Worksheet

1. In which phase of mitosis do each of the following occur: a. Centromeres split and chromosomes move toward opposite sides of the cell anaphase
b. Chromatin coils to form visible chromosomes
prophase
c. The nuclear membrane disappears
prophase
d. Sister chromatids line up in the center of the cell
metaphase

2. In which phases of mitosis are sister chromatids visible, and attached to each other at the centromere? Prophase and metaphase

Table 1: Record your data for the number of cells in each stage of the cell cycle observed in normal tissues.

Tissue Type
# Cells in Interphase
# Cells in Prophase
# Cells in
Metaphase
# Cells in Anaphase
# Cells in
Telophase
Lung Tissue
Sample 1
19
0
0
1
0
Lung Tissue
Sample 2
19
0
0
1
0
Stomach Tissue
Sample 1
18
0
1
0
1
Stomach Tissue
Sample 2
16
1
1
0
2
Ovarian Tissue
Sample 1
17
0
1
2
0
Ovarian Tissue
Sample 2
19
0
0
1
0

Table 2: Record your data for the number of cells in each stage of the cell cycle observed in cancerous tissues.

Tissue Type
# Cells in Interphase
# Cells in Prophase
# Cells in
Metaphase
# Cells in Anaphase
# Cells in
Telophase
Lung Tissue
Sample 1
16
0
2
1
1
Lung Tissue
Sample 2
15
1
3
0
1
Stomach Tissue
Sample 1
13
2
2
2
1
Stomach Tissue
Sample 2
14
2
1
1
2
Ovarian Tissue
Sample 1
11
2
2
3
2
Ovarian Tissue
Sample 2
13
2
1
2
2

Table 3: Use the data in Table 1 to calculate the Mitotic Index (average % cells dividing) for each normal tissue type.

Tissue Type
Avg. % cells at rest
Mitotic Index
Lung - normal
95
5
Stomach - normal
85
15
Ovary - normal
90
10

Table 4: Use the data in Table 2 to calculate the average % cells dividing and average % cells at rest in each cancerous tissue type.

Tissue Type
Avg. % cells at rest
Mitotic Index
Lung - cancerous
32
23
Stomach - cancerous
68
33
Ovary - cancerous
60
40

Questions:

3. What does your data indicate about the rate of cell division in cancerous tissue compared to the rate of cell division in normal tissue? What data did you use to answer this question? The mitotic index shows that the rate of cell division has incresed in cancerous cells.

4. Which type of cancer is the fastest growing? Explain your answer, using your relevant data. The fastest growing cancer is ovarian cancer. It has the highest Mitiotic index.

5. With what you have observed in this lab, if you were to compare tissue sample from normal breast tissue and cancerous breast tissue:

a. Would you expect to see a difference in the rate of cell division in the cancerous breast tissue compared to the normal breast tissue? Explain your answer. Yes, cancerous tissue has a higher mitotic index than non cancerous tissue.

b. Could you make a prediction about the average % dividing cells in the cancerous breast tissue? Explain your answer. Based on the other tissue samples I would estimate a mitiotic index between 23 and 40.

6. Consider the % dividing cells in normal lung, normal stomach, and normal ovarian tissue. Why do you think there are more cells dividing in the stomach and ovary tissue than in the lung tissue?

The stomach has a high turn over of cells due to food, acid, and churning in the stomach. Ovarian cells are constantly reproducing as part of the menstrual cycle.

7. This lab explores three common cancers. An additional form of cancer – Skin Cancer – used to be seen only in older individuals but is now seen in younger individuals, many in their early 20s. Skin cancer results from accumulated mutations to the DNA of skin cells, caused primarily by sun exposure. What factors do you think may be contributing to the increase in skin cancer among young adults?

The increased rates could be due to exposure to an increased amount of...
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