Homeostatic Mechanisms That Maintain Body Fluid Levels

Topics: Blood, Heart, Hypertension Pages: 18 (4206 words) Published: May 27, 2014


Body fluids are maintained at a constant level by several homeostatic mechanisms:

Osmosis- is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane known as a plasma membrane. Water is highly polar it is repelled by the lipid core (nonpolar) of the plasma membrane but can easily pass through the aquaporins created by the proteins in the membrane, so osmosis is happening all the time as water moves into and out of cells. Diffusion- Is where ions move away from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated, all ions contain kinetic energy and as they move around randomly at high speeds they collide forcing them to change direction with each collision Active Transport- requires protein carriers that join together reversibly with the substances to be transported across the membrane using (ATP) to energize its protein carriers also known as solute pumping

Ref:Marieb, Elaine, N, Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, Pearson, International, Edn, 9th, 2009, ppg, 76,78

Which is the most important electrolyte for the maintenance of osmosis pressure and volume in the extracellular fluid (ECF) compartment? The most important electrolyte is sodium which is necessary for nerve impulse conduction and maintains body fluid balances.

Ref: Herlihy, Barbara, Elsevier, Saunders, The human body in Health and Illness, Edn, 4, pg, 466

Which is the main intracellular ion that maintains intracellular fluid osmotic pressure The main intracellular ion is potassium which is a hormone regulated by the aldosterone that stimulates the distal tubule of the kidney that will excrete the potassium into the urine.

Ref: Herlihy, Barbara, Elsevier, Saunders, The human body in Health and Illness, Edn, 4, pg, 466

Activity 2.1
Mary who is 94 years old has been put in a bath with water that was to hot and has received burns to 36% of her body of varying depths Why is dehydration and electrolyte imbalance a danger?
Dehydration mixed with an electrolyte imbalance can affect the homeostasis role in the human body, with loss of body fluids containing protein and sodium, magnesium and potassium levels are changed by becoming too high or low it can cause changes in blood volume the body’s ability to deliver oxygen and key nutrients to active muscles, organs, glands, can affect renal function, lower blood pressure, confusion, disorientation, it may interfere with electrical activity within the heart which can cause abnormal rhythms or a myocardial infraction and all can be life threatening. Ref: Marieb, Elaine, N, Pearsons, International, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Edition, 9, pg 163

How have the functions of the skin been impaired?
Functions of the skin that have been impaired are firstly the temperature can’t be regulated and maintained throughout the body losing the ability to sweat, renal shutdown, nerve damage to the sensors, immune system becomes deficient, circulatory shock less blood circulation because of less blood volume, loss of the ability to maintain fluids, burnt skin is venerable for 24 hours to infection from bacteria, Fungi and pathogens where they multiply quite rapidly in the nutrient rich environment of dead tissue Ref: Marieb, Elaine, N, Pearsons, International, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Edition, 9, pg 164

How will the body try and repair the areas that have been burnt? Our body can be repaired with the four stages of wound healing, haemostasis, the inflammation stage, the reconstruction stage and the maturation stage these stages begin with an injury and may take years for the wound to heal. Haemostasis: stage one there is the vasoconstriction, platelet response, and the biochemical response. The Inflammation Phase: Stage two this phase lasts for three days and begins with the haemostasis; when the capillaries contract and thrombus to prevent blood loss and damage, with the inflammation of oedema, swelling, pain, heat, nerve damage and...
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