Urinary System

Topics: Kidney, Ureter, Urinary bladder Pages: 20 (628 words) Published: April 19, 2015
Urinary SystemAnatomy and Physiology
Zoe McCarthy

1

Urinary System in Context

2

Urinary System in Context
System

How does it do it?

3

Functions of the Urinary system
• 1. Regulating blood volume and pressure
• 2. Regulating plasma concentrations of sodium,
potassium, chloride and other ions
• 3. Stabilising blood pH
• 4. Conserving nutrients
• 5. Detoxifying poisons (with the liver)
4

Organisation of the Urinary System





Kidneys
Ureters
Urinary bladder
Urethra

5

Position of the Kidneys
CT abdomen with contrast

MRI coronal abdomen

6

Protection of the Kidneys
• 3 layers of connective
tissue:

Renal cortex

– Inner layer- Renal capsule
– Middle layer- Adipose
capsule
– Outer layer-Renal fascia

Retroperitoneal space

7

Surface anatomy of the Kidney
• Hilum is located on
the medial surface

10 cm

3cm

5.5cm
8

Internal Structure of the Kidney
Renal Lobe

Renal pyramids

Renal papilla

Renal Columns
9

Microscopic structure of the Kidney
and Urine Production

10

Renal Corpuscle and Filtration

11

Nephron-Tubular System
1. Proximal convoluted
tubule
2. Descending loop of
Henle
3. Ascending loop of
Henle
4. Distal convoluted
tubule
5. Collecting duct

12

Summary so far…..
Blood enters the kidney
through the renal artery at
the site of the hilum

The PCT is concerned with
reabsorption- organic nutrients are
reabsorbed and water follows
because there is a concentration
gradient

The remaining filtrate moves
into the descending loop of
henle. This is lined with thin
cells so water moves out

A number of other nephrons join
up to the cleectig duct which
travels through the medulla to the
renal papilla wher the filtrate is
emptied in the minor calyx

4-5 minor calyces join up to
make a major calyx

The renal artery divides in
to ever smaller arteries and
arterioles

The filtered substances
move into the proximal
convoluted tubule

Because water has been
reabsorbed the concentration
of the filtrate is not very high

From the DCT the filtrate now
passes into the collecting duct.

2-3 major calyces join up
to form the renal pelvis

Afferent arterioles take blood to
the glomerulus to be filtered

Once blood is filtered
efferent arterioles take blood
away from the glomerulus

Products which are filtered out:
water, mineral salts, amino acids,
glucose, hormones, urea, toxins

The glomerulus is a
network of capillaries
which filters the blood

The walls of the ascending loop
of henle are lined with thicker
cells, so water can’t pass in or
out. Instead sodium and
chloride is pumped out actively

In the DCT the volume and
composition of the filtrate
can be adjusted but this is
controlled by hormones

The renal pelvis joins the
ureter at the hilum

Products which do not filter
and remain in the blood:
Leukocytes, erythrocytes,
platelets, plasma proteins

The filtrate now enters the
distal convoluted tubule- is it
now only 20% of what it
originally was.

The ureter transport the
filtrate/urine from the kidney
to the bladder

13

The Formation of Urine
• 3 processes involved in the formation of
urine.
– Simple filtration
– Selective reabsorbtion
• Hormonal control» Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin
» Anti diuretic hormone
» Aldosterone

– Secretion
14

Ureters
• Superiorly
• Continuous with the renal
pelvis

• Inferiorly
• Pass through the abdominal
cavity, behind the
peritoneum, infront of the
psoas muscle, into the
pelvic cavity ehere they
enter the posterior wall of
the bladder

• 25-30 cm in length
15

Ureter- Cross Section
• 3 layers of tissue
– Outer layer
• Fibrous tissue

– Middle layer
• Muscle

– Inner layer
• Epithelium

16

Bladder

17

Bladder- structure of
• 3 layers
– Outer layer
• Loose connective
tissue

– Middle layer
• Smooth muscle and
elastic...
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