Cabinet system

Topics: Malaysia, British Malaya, Federation of Malaya Pages: 11 (2074 words) Published: February 24, 2014
LESSON 3

THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE

1.0 Introduction

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Do you still remember how long Malaysia had been colonized by foreign powers? Approximately, it is about 446 years. Throughout the era of colonization, many efforts were taken in earnest to free the country from the foreign powers. The local inhabitants (especially the Malays) constantly opposed the colonists. From the history point of view, the struggle for independence can be divided into two stages. The first stage is the bloodshed stage and the second stage is the struggle without bloodshed that was through literature and then negotiations. Thus, among the things that you will come across in this topic is the rise of nationalism spirit, the struggle against colonialism, emergence of political parties and the negotiations for independence.

2.0 Learning Outcomes

By the end of the topics, you should be able to:

1. Elaborate the two stages of struggle for independence
2. Identify the nationalist movements that rose against the British colonists 3. Identify form of administration implemented in the country before independence 4. Analyze the processes involved in obtaining independence for Malaya

3.0 List of Topics

3.1 The Bloodshed Struggle

3.2 The Struggle without Bloodshed (through literature and negotiations)

3.3 The Malayan Union and Peoples’ Reaction to it

3.4 The Federation of Malaya

3.5 The Growth of Political Parties

3.6 The Negotiations for Independence

4.0 Terminologies

4.1 Bloodshed Struggle
Struggle that involves death of those who fight

4.2 Proclamation
Official or public announcement

4.3 Excessive tax rates

High tax rates that beyond the people’s ability to pay

5.0 Topics

5.1 The Bloodshed Struggle

5.1.1 Presentation

The bloody struggle began since the Portuguese occupied Malacca in 1511 until the beginning of the 20th century. The people fought the colonists by using arms. It occurred in every state due to the colonists’ action that imposed excessive tax rates, violated Malay customs and religions of the local population, restricted the higher officials’ source of income from taxes and oppressed the people. For an instance, in Pahang, Tok Gajah and Dato’ Bahaman launched a holy war when the British resident introduced the post of tax collector and magistrate. Another example is the struggle of Tok Janggut in Kelantan when the British imposed taxes on the local people.

5.1.2 Activities

Please spend your time to read Table 2.1 of the text book. Try to remember the following: a) Name of leaders of each state
b) Reasons of their oppositions

5.2 The Struggle without Bloodshed (through literature and negotiations)

5.2.1 Presentation

By the 20th century, there was awareness among local leaders of using mind and words to fight for independence rather than using arms and force. The emergence of Malay intellectuals encouraged a struggle through diplomacy and negotiations. Besides, the people had to be stirred with the spirit of nationalism. Organizations and mass media (especially newspapers) were used to stir the spirit. The media gave lots of opportunities to the people to submit and receive important information from leaders.

Among the most influential newspapers are:

a) Al-Imam
b) Utusan Melayu
c) Neracha
d) Saudara
e) Warta Malaya
f) Majlis

Meanwhile, among the influential clubs, associations and union in this stage of struggle are:

Name
Aim
Singapore Malay Union

To encourage the Malays to be involved in the government
Selangor Malay Union
To force the British to increase Malay participation in the administration and to improve the economic, political and social situation of the Malays Perak Malay Union
To improve the economic status and education of the Malays
Young Malay Union (Kesatuan Melayu Muda)
To fight for Malay interests and the integration of Malaya with Indonesia...
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