Divide the following styles of behaviour into pairs of opposites: a. being group oriented
b. being cautious and careful
c. being decisive and able to take rapid individual decisions d. being individualistic
e. being assertive, authoritative, ruthless and competitive f. being happy to take risks
g. being good at listening and sensitive to other people's feelings h. being intuitive
i. being logical, rational and analytic
j. liking consensus and conciliation
Which five of the above styles do you think are generally
preferable for managers?
Now look at the following list of qualities. Which are the most important for a manager? k. being competent and efficient in one's job
l. being friendly and sociable
m. being a hard worker
n. being persuasive
o. having good ideas
p. being good at communicating
q. being good at motivating people
r. being good at taking the initiative and leading other people
Make a list of the five most important qualities from a. to r. Which of these qualities do you think you have? Which do you lack? Which could you still learn?
Which do you have to be born with?
WHAT IS MANAGEMENT
The need for effective managers has never been greater. We are living in an era of accelerating global competition. Pressures from foreign companies are causing many managers to reassess their approaches as they strive to be successful in a formidable competitive environment. More than ever, managers operating both globally and domestically require the best ideas that the field of management has to offer in order to gain a competitive edge. 2
For most of us, organizations are an important part of our daily lives. By organization, we mean two or more persons engaged in a systematic effort to produce goods or services. We all deal with organizations when we attend classes, deposit money at the bank, buy clothing, and attend a movie. Our lives are indirectly affected by organizations through the products we use.
Management is the process of achieving organizational goals by engaging in the four major functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. This definition recognizes that management is an ongoing activity, entails reaching important goals, and involves knowing how to perform the major functions of management. These functions are crucial to effective management. In this section, we provide a brief overview of the four functions (see Figure 1-1). Then we consider how they relate to other major aspects of managerial work. 4
Planning is the management function that involves setting goals and deciding how best to achieve them. This function also includes considering what must be done to encourage necessary levels of change and innovation. Organizing is the management function that focuses on allocating and arranging human and non-human resources so that plans can be carried out successfully. Through the organizing function managers determine which tasks are to be done, how tasks can best be combined into specific jobs, and how jobs can be grouped into various units that make up the structure of the organization. Staffing jobs with individuals who can successfully carry out plans is also part of the organizing function. Leading is the management function that involves influencing others to engage in the work behaviours necessary to reach organizational goals. Leading includes communicating with others, helping to outline a vision of what can be accomplished, providing direction, and motivating organization members to put forth the substantial effort required. Controlling is the management function aimed at regulating organizational activities so that actual performance conforms to expected organizational standards and goals. To do the necessary regulating, managers need to monitor ongoing activities, compare the results with expected...