The entry and participation of women in the workforce have for long been restricted by the cultural and religious practices. Compared to men, the socio-economic status of women is poor leading to their economic dependency on men. But today, the situation has slightly changed; women are beginning to realize their contribution to the workforce. The realization has come with the struggle for recognition as the women are beginning to eye well-paying jobs in the workforce. However, the change is gradual because the gap replicates right from schooling where more men than women graduate from colleges and universities.
Compared to men, women are much less in the workforce. They are still exposed to sex and race discrimination that influences their pay, hiring or promotions. Women’s median earnings are lower than men’s in nearly all occupations, whether they work in occupations predominantly done by women, occupations predominantly done by men or occupations with a more even mix of men and women (Hegewisch, Matite 2013). For equality to be achieved then occupational segregation needs to be wiped out. Occupational segregation sets job limits in the workforce such that men will do jobs that are meant for men and women stick to jobs that are done by women. The most discriminating fact is that women earn less than men in all of the most common occupations for both women and men; they also earn less in broad occupations by race or ethnicity. Besides, the work done by men tends to fetch a lot more than the work that is done by women. Women’s social responsibility also affects their commitment and availability for work. It has become part of their life; for them to take long vacations to take care of the children, more so in the case of the newborns. Such absence from work may hinder any immediate promotions at place of work. This can explain why more men are in higher ranks than women.
The market forces have for many...