Source: Research Journal New York University, CEPR, NBER, November 2006 1.0 : Introduction
Woman, Work and Culture by Raquel Fernandez is the choice of journal that I choose. In this journal, culture can be defined as a body of share understanding, knowledge and practice, therefore to understand the differences of culture, space and social group is in working time. Then, culture has big impact to the economic outcome where it could be different across environments. When there are issues on economic phenomena, instead of culture’s role that needed explanation, traditional strategy has been used to interpret the variation with difference in the technology, policies and institution. Other than that, in the next few years time, the effect of culture will be so much more different that the culture that we used to know and it will be on a large set of questions. The main focus on this journal is about women’s participation in the formal labor market. In the 20th century, women’s role has almost certainly has changed as woman’s role in an organization has increased even though they are married throughout the years. This could be because the impact of the time period where there were some rises in service sector, the circulation of technology that allowed house chores become more easier and less energy consuming and contraception pills where legally sold in the market that allowed women to control their pregnancy level. Besides that, another survey has shown that the ongoing increase in women’s labor force is because of the steady growth in cultural beliefs on the proper role of woman in an organization. Indeed, another data shown that men whose mothers worked while they were growing up tend to be married to the women that also works. This shown that, the men’s mother played an important role in the change in female labor supply as when they are brought up by a working mother, they prefer to married a working women too. In addition, the changes in attitudes are actually through individual experiences and it has been vital contribution towards female labor supply. Then, this discussion is supported by the hypothesis that the
attitude of individual in working matter are influenced in a systematic fashion in which it is easier to identify the differences in culture, beliefs at a point in time.
The author uses epidemiological approach to studying on culture. In this approach, analyze is used for young generation and immigrants as a way to separate the institution and influence of markets. Like any others culture analysis, the main difficulty that is faced and effect on economic outcome is to cut off its influence from economic variables like income, prices and more. Besides that, cross-country analysis is an effective analysis as it could manage macroeconomic differences and relate between countries dummies with the effect of could is not that convincing. By using the answers from the survey form shows that individual across the country answer these survey based on their economic factors which represent the differences in culture. Then, in order to use other approach, many kind instruments are used and it is difficult to obtain the right percentage. In addition, this approach relies on investigating people of other country into the country that includes the younger generation, thus exploiting the differential portability of culture comparative to market and institution. They do not share the same culture; some may inherited their parent’s culture like the beliefs and preferences. Therefore, women who born in other country than their parents were born may able to adapt different culture heritage while maintains the economic and institutional factors. This epidemiological have its own set of plans to overcome problems. People from the other country may have their own language, uncertainty avoidance level and also...