Gender Roles in the Workplace: Annotated Bibliography
Adler, M. A. (1994). Male-Female power differences at work: A comparison of supervisor and policymakers. Sociological Inquiry, 64(1), 37-55. This article spoke of the positions of power between men and women, and how policymakers and supervisors distribute that power to men and women. In the work place, when considering for advancement, employers have undefined criteria such as personality characteristics and potential managerial qualities. These standards become the cause of inequality in authority and power at work place. Jobs that are available for women have low wages and also less authority. Similar research studies have shown similar points, in that inequality is found at the workplace because of such gender based characteristics. Even though women were shown to be more educated, they do not follow the same status. The researcher in this study used methodology to find these inequalities at the work place. The study consisted of four data points to test and used 531 women and 619 men for this data. The author collected data for power in wage labor, employment, sample characteristics and occupation by education. The results showed that men achieve higher positions and also showed they have a higher chance at a supervisory level and more authority than women. In the workplace, gender is a major part of determining positions of power. Also, it shows that education is more important to get supervisor positions, which is less effective for women. This study demonstrates the inequality between men and women that makes men more prone to positions of power than women. The data and research clearly showed that women have greatly less access to positions of power and authority at work place than men, and that gender is the key factor in determining those positions. Policymakers and supervisors may indeed make regulations promoting equality but gender bias is still obviously exhibited. Carbonell, J.L., & Castro, Y. (2008). The impact of a leader model on high dominant women’s self-selection for leadership. Sex Roles ,58,776-783. This study had women observe a leader model of either gender model a task they would have to complete. The study looked at effects of gender role model in the decision of high dominant women to be leaders, given a masculine task to complete with a male co-worker. The hypothesis states that women would become leaders at a higher rate when a woman model is given rather than a male. The research took a total of 190 students: 95 women and 95 men. Each individual was given the California Psychological Inventory, measuring: impression, communication, and dominance. This study looked at dominance in particular. Only 15 pairs were exposed to women models. The study observed 2 groups to support or reject their hypothesis. Focused groups were made of high dominant woman paired with a low dominant man with a female model, and high dominant woman paired with a low dominant man with a male model. A chi square analysis showed a correlation between leader model and leader development, “The results are that 60% of women took the leader role when given a woman model compared to 20% in male model” (Castro, 2008). The study concluded in the presence of a female model, high dominant individual would be the leader. The gender of the leader model did not affect leadership for males. I believe this study shows importance of woman leader models in professional fields. The lack of exposure of woman leaders for women reduces the chances that they will take on leadership roles. Katz, D. (1987). Sex discrimination in hiring: The influence of organizational climate and need for approval on decision making behavior. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11(1), 11-20. Previous studies have caused the idea that equally skilled men and women are assessed unequally when applying for jobs. The present study observes the...
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