Urbanization Trends

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Urbanization Trends
The world has experienced two major urban revolutions in the past, with the first one starting around 8000 B.C.E. and the second one starting around 1750, spawned by the Industrial Revolution (Macionis, 2011). The third urban revolution has now begun, however the rapid rate of urban growth is concentrated mainly in low-income nations. This trend is thought to be caused by falling death rates and migration of people moving toward inner cities in search of better jobs, education, healthcare and the desire for better living conditions. An example of this revolution can be seen in the bustling city of Dhaka, Bangladesh and the rapid growth has produced serious concerns for issues such as childhood mortality and urban poverty (Islam & Azad, 2008). A Statistical View

In the 1950s only two of the seven cities in the world with populations exceeding 5 million were poor nations, yet by 2007 there were 49 cities, of which two-thirds were comprised of low-income nations (Macionis, 2011). If we look at an even broader view of urbanization, we would see that in only 35 years urban population in less developed nations quadrupled from 286 million in 1950 to 1.14 billion by 1985 (United Nations, 1986). On a smaller scale, the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh struggles to support over 10 million people, and it is believed that net immigration is the greatest contributing factor rather than natural increases in the rapid population growth. The infant mortally rate in Bangladesh is one of the highest among developing nations, with 1 in 10 children dying before the age of 5. The statistical future looks bleak for the big cities of Bangladesh as it is expected that over half of the nation’s populations will move to urban areas by 2025 (Islam & Azad, 2008). Causes and Consequences

A primary cause of urbanization is the desire for higher wages with increased opportunities for employment. Another primary factor is the need for better healthcare and modern...
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