United States Healthcare: An Annotated Bibliography
Over the past hundred years, there have been several changes to the healthcare profession. A change from just being happy to care for one’s patients day or night to “you have to have money and insurance for me to treat you.” Gone are the days that one could walk into a hospital and not have to worry about how he or she was going to pay the bill, gone are the days that having insurance was one’s own choice, and gone are the days that choosing one’s personal doctor was by whom a person liked and not by who accepted one’s insurance. Berkman, Lisa F. "The Health Divide." Contexts 2004: 38-44. Print. In this article the author is talking about the effects of the healthcare divide by social standards. The author states that the average life span of Americans has been way below the normal of the rest of the world. This article points out that men who live in Harlem are less likely to make it to age 65 than men who live in Bangladesh.(38) It could be because Americans are less likely to take initiative in receiving treatment, or it could possibly be because Americans have more money, more fast food venues, and fewer concerns for taking care of their own health. Chronic diseases are the most likely cause for early demise in men and women in the U.S. According to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control), children younger than 12 years old have the highest rate of death from chronic disease.(39) The chronic disease could be anything from heart malformation to premature birth. Either way, those chronic diseases could have been treated simply in a hospital setting. Champlin, Dell P., and Janet T. Knoedler. "Universal Health Care and the Economics of Responsibility." Journal of Economic Issues 42.4 (2008): 913-38. Print. In Congress, healthcare is being discussed as something that will be made mandatory. It is believed that as a “human right” people should all have access to healthcare and insurance. That insurance system is split into three different sectors: households, employers, and government.(3) The author discusses the differences between the three sectors and the increases in each sector to compensate for those who don’t have insurance. Healthcare has transitioned from being paid for by an individual, to being paid for by everyone as a whole. The percentage of people who don’t have insurance to cover their healthcare was at 15.8%, with the majority coming from ages between 18-24 years as 29.3%.(4) That trickles into the other divisions having to raise premiums to cover the costs. Garrett, Bowen, Matthew Buettgens, Lan Doan, Irene Headen, and John Holahan. The Cost of Failure to Enact Health Reform: 2010–2020. Rep. Print. Well, this article showed how the healthcare reform is supposed to go and they showed the impact it would be on the majority of society. It would be that unemployment is going to be lowered, health spending will decrease, private premiums will decrease, and out-of-pocket costs will be lowered.(4-5) This is the best case scenario given. Is it realistic? No, it’s completely unrealistic because the job rate is much lower than the progress of healthcare, that will make the reform of the way insurance and hospitals interact hard to keep up with how quickly the healthcare field is developing. To elaborate the authors talk about how much healthcare insurance will have to change in order to catch up to the extreme, ever-changing aspects of healthcare costs. Holahan, John, and Bowen Garrett. "The Cost of Uncompensated Care with and without Health Reform." Timely Analysis of Immediate Health Policy Issues (2010): 1-5. Print. Making health insurance mandatory to everyone is not going to work unless there is a change to the way the insurance is used. Many hospitals don’t accept the majority of health insurance for petty reasons. How do they expect to help everyone who has healthcare when they don’t accept the insurance that’s the cheapest and easiest to acquire? An...
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