Understand child and young person development
What is the sequence and rate of each aspect of development birth-19 years?
Children do not all develop at the same rate as each other. Every child has a different rate of development. Areas of development, the main areas of development are;
* Physical development
* Social development
* Intellectual development
* Language development
As there is a difference in the rate of progression, below is a guide to how a child might develop for the following age ranges.
Age 0-3 years
* Physical development, lay on their back with their head to one side, have primitive reflexes such as rooting and sucking, hold their hands in tight fists, their heads and eyes will start to move together, kick legs and wave arms, turns from back to side, sit with support, roll over, stand alone and start to walk holding on, enjoy self feeding and hold a cup with help, push and pull toys when walking, use a spoon to self feed, draw circle and dots and kick a ball confidently,.
* Social development, Respond positively to main carer, smiles and engages and vocalizes with carers, seek attention, interested in loud noises, more demanding and assertive, emotionally volatile, dislike change in routine, start toilet training, Learn to separate from carer for short periods of time, for example while at nursery, Stable and emotionally secure and play alongside others.
* Intellectual development, turns to soft light, cries when basic needs require attention, puts everything in their mouth, points to interesting objects outside, points to parts of the body, paints with large brush and cuts with scissors.
* Language development, cries when requires attention, laughs and chuckles and squeals aloud in play, starts to say dada mama, knows their own name, responds to simple instructions, start to talk to themselves during play, holds simple conversations and start to count to 10.
Age 4-7 years
* Physical development, walk backwards on a line, run and hop, build a tower with blocks, brush own teeth, dresses and undresses, form letters and write own name, tie and untie laces and control a pencil in a small area and do detailed drawings.
* Social development, respond to reasoning, learn to take turns, become engrossed in activities, are able to form friendships , play in separate sex groups, and become fairly independent and confident.
* Intellectual development, colours pictures in neatly, name primary colours and match 10 or more colours, understand in front and behind, read simple books, can predict next events, can count up to 100, enjoy games and rules and understand the use of symbols in math’s and writing.
* Language development, speech is fluent and correct, using descriptive language, knows parts of the body, animals, give full name age birthday and address, enjoy jokes singing and rhymes etc, will accurately copy accents heard and produce most sounds with some residual difficulty with some letter groups.
Age 8-12 years
* Physical development, improves physical skills that have already developed, puberty starts around 10 for girls with a growth spurt and increase in body strength.
* Social development, Friendships become very important-mostly same sex, concern at thoughts of others about them and often unsure about changes in settings.
* Intellectual development, can reason and apply logic to problems, can transfer information from situation to another, become more creative in play and reading and writing confidently.
* 8 years and over Language development, most children are fluent speakers, readers and writers of their language and increasing use of peer influenced also use coded language.
Ages 13-19 years
* Physical development, brains developing with increase in reaction times and co-ordination, for girl’s puberty is complete at about 14 and periods start, for...