Child Development Unit 22 Outcome 1 and 2

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Unit 22. Outcome 1: Understand child and young person development.

Birth – 1 Month
• Sleeps 20 hours a day
• Crying – main form of communication (fosters early interaction) • Begins to have distinct facial expressions
• Moves around more
• Focuses both eyes together
• Can detect smells
• Sensitive to touch
• Uses reflexes
• Focuses on source of sound
2 – 3 Months
• Visual and oral exploration
• Cries, coos, and grunts
• Emotional distress
• Smiles at a face (social smiling)
• Imitates some movements and facial expressions
• Begins to realize he/she is a separate person from others • Can be comforted by a familiar adult
• Can respond positively to touch
4 – 6 Months
• Babbling
• Feeds 3-5 times a day
• Control of head and arm movements
• Recognizes parents
• Distinguishes familiar people
• Pays attention to own name
• Reaches, grasps, and puts objects in mouth
• Laughs
7 – 9 Months
• Sits without support
• Crawls
• Emotional attachment to parents
• Separation anxiety
• Distinguishes between living and non-living objects
• Aware that objects exist even when out of sight (object permanence) 10 – 12 Months
• Controls legs/feet
• Can stand
• Responds to simple commands
• Responds to own name
• Throws objects
• Mimics simple actions
• Says first real word
1 –1 ½ Years
• Walks unaided
• Feeds himself/herself
• Obeys commands
• Repeats words
• Understands many words, simple phrases, and directions
1 ½ – 2 years
• Runs
• Toilet training
• Vocabulary of more than 200 words
• Temper tantrums
• Does opposite of what is told
• Expresses negative feelings
• Plays by himself/herself and initiates his/her own play
• Begins to show pride and pleasure at new accomplishments 2 –3 Years
• Can jump
• Uses short sentences
• Copies parents’ actions
• Gives orders
• Sense of humour
• Fear of separation
• Develops a concept of “self” and can identify himself/herself in the mirror • Begins self-evaluation
• Conscience starts to appear
• Groups objects by category
• Points to common objects when they are named
• Recounts events that happened that day
• Assertive about his/her preferences
• Displays aggressive feelings/behaviours
• Shows awareness of gender identity
3 –4 Years
• Theory of mind (an understanding of how the mind works and how it influences behaviour) • Likes to share
• Plays with other children
• Practices gender role activities
• Curiosity – asks many “why” and “how” questions • Begins dramatic play (acting out whole scenes)
• Shows awareness of past and present
• Uses and understands sentences
• Can sing a song
4 –5 Years
• Skips
• Dresses himself/herself
• Talks clearly
• Uses adult sounds
• Uses more complex grammar
• Reads a story
• Prefers sex appropriate activities
• Can draw, name, and describe pictures
• Shows some understanding of moral reasoning
• Compares himself/herself to others
• Develops friendships
• Expresses more awareness of other people’s feelings
• Retells a story
• Understands the sequencing of events when clearly explained • Enjoys imaginative play with other children
6 –12 Years
• Growing independence
• Common fears include the unknown, failure, family problems, rejection, and death • Friends are most commonly the same sex
• Begins to see others’ point of view more clearly
• Defines himself/herself in terms of appearance, possessions, and activities • Are self-conscious
• Tattling – a common way to attract adult attention
• Feelings get hurt easily
• Needs about 10 hours of sleep a night
• Begins to think about his/her own behaviour and see consequences • Can talk through problems to solve them
12 – 14 Years
• Trying to find his/her identity
• Rapid body changes from puberty (girls mature before boys) • Moodiness
• Shyness
• Greater interest in privacy
• Can express himself/herself better
• Uses actions more than words to communicate feelings
• Close friendships gain importance
•...
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