Transaction processing is a style of computing that divides work into individual, indivisible operations, called transactions. A transaction processing system (TPS) or transaction server is a software system, or software/hardware combination, that supports transaction processing. •
One of the first transaction processing systems was American Airline SABRE system, which became operational in 1960. Designed to process up to 83,000 transactions a day, the system ran on two IBM 7090 computers. SABRE was migrated to IBM System/360 computers in 1972, and became an IBM product first as Airline control Program (ACP) and later as Transaction Processing Facility (TPF). In addition to airlines TPF is used by large banks, credit card companies, and hotel chains. The Hewlett-Packard NonStop system (formerly Tandem NonStop) was a hardware and software system designed for Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) introduced in 1976. The systems were designed for transaction processing and provided an extreme level of availability and data integrity. List of transaction processing systems
•IBM Transaction Processing Facility (TPF) - 1960. Unlike most other transaction processing systems TPF is a dedicated operating system for transaction processing on IBM System z mainframes. Originally Airline Control Program (ACP). •IBM Information Management System (IMS) - 1966. A joint hierarchical database and information management system with extensive transaction processing capabilities. Runs on OS/360 and successors. •IBM Customer Information Control System (CICS) - 1969. A transaction manager designed for rapid, high-volume online processing, CICS originally used standard system datasets, but now has a connection to IBM's DB/2 relational database system. Runs on OS/360 and successors and DOS/360 and successors, IBM AIX, VM, and OS/2. Non-mainframe versions are called TXSeries. •Tuxedo - 1980s. Transactions for Unix, Extended for Distributed Operations developed by AT&T Corporation, now owned by Oracle Corporation. Tuxedo is a cross-platform TPS. •UNIVAC Transaction Interface Package (TIP) - 1970s. A transaction processing monitor for UNIVAC 1100/2200 series computers. •Burroughs Corporation supported transaction processing capabilities in its MCP operating systems. As of 2012 UNISYS ClearPath Enterprise Servers include Transaction Server, "an extremely flexible, high-performance message and application control system." •Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) Application Control and Management System (ACMS) - 1985. "Provides an environment for creating and controlling online transaction processing (OLTP) applications on the VMS operating system." Runs on VAX/VMS systems. •Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) Message Control System (MCS-10) for PDP-10 TOPS-10 systems. •Honeywell Multics Transaction Processing. Feature (TP) - 1979. •Transaction Management eXecutive (TMX) was NCR Corporation's proprietary transaction processing system running on NCR Tower 5000-series systems. This system was used mainly by financial institutions in the 1980s and 1990s. •Hewlett-Packard NonStop system - 1976. NonStop is an integrated hardware and software system specifically designed for transaction processing. Originally from Tandem Computers. •Transarc Encina - 1991. Transarc was purchased by IBM in 1994. Encina was discontinued as a product and folded into IBM's TXSeries. Encina support was discontinued in 2006. Processing types
Transaction processing is distinct from other computer processing models — batch processing, time-sharing, and real-time processing. Batch processing
Main article: Batch processing
Batch processing is execution of a series of programs (jobs) on a computer without manual intervention. Several transactions, called a batch are collected and processed at the same time. The results of each transaction are not immediately available when the transaction is being entered there is a time delay....