Theories of Learning

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Table of Contents- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 Introduction- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 I. Piaget’s Cognitive Development - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 II. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Development - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 III. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- 7 IV. Vygotsky’s Socio Cultural Theory of Development- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 V. Learners with Exceptionalities - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11 VI. Behaviorism -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 15 VII. Neo-Behaviorism - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ¬¬-22 VIII.Information Processing- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - -24 IX. Gestalt Psychology - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -27 X. Bruner’s Constructivist Theory - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -29 XI. Ausubel’sMeaningful Verbal Learning/ Subsumption Theory- - - - - - - - - - - 35 XII. Gagne’s Conditions of Learning- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --39 XII. References - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 43

Introduction
Education is not a preparation for life but life itself according to John Dewey(1893). It is but natural that life inside the premises of the four corners of the classroom is a microcosm of what it happening in our society. The current trends in education reflect our maturity as a society. Our adherence to the democratic principles which is manifested in equal representation is evident in the constructivist approach to learning. The role of the teacher asserts its timelessness in these currents to facilitate the subjective ideas of the students while maintaining objectivity in their construction of knowledge. Quoting from the Greatest Teacher in the gospel of John 6:40(GNT) “No pupils are greater than their teacher; but all pupils, when they have completed their training, will be like their teacher”. However, “to know” is precisely to grasp what is permanent. If there is nothing permanent, nothing can be known according to de Torre(1980).This implies that even all things are changing we need to be grounded on the time tested principles of teaching in order not to lose our footing to the new currents of our time. Understanding these principles is the objective of this research and its implications to teaching. This research is bounded on the twelve topics in facilitating learning which contains brief biography of the theorist, his theory and its implication to teaching. This research is a cooperative contribution of group of five students in the subject Facilitating Learning(GED 222) .

I. PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Biography
Jean William Fritz Piaget was born on August 9, 1896. He was a French-speaking Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children. He was the eldest son of Arthur Piaget and Rebecca Jackson. He is "the great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing" and the proponent of this Stages of Cognitive Development. His Theory

Cognitive Theory of Development is concerned with the development of thought processes and reasoning from infancy to adolescence and stressed the child’s active role in determining his or her developmental level. According to Jean Piaget (2003) children become interested in the relationship between the child’s naturally maturing abilities and his or her interactions with the environment. He added that children’s’ incorrect...
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