Theories of Frederick Taylor and Adam Smith Public Administration

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In public administration and as well as other entities, organizational success largely depends on its structure. Over the years many theories have been developed regarding the structure of organizations. In this paper, I will be focusing on Fredrick Taylor, Adam Smith, Henri Fayol, Luther Gulick, Max Weber and Gilbreth. These "structuralists" provide with different models of organizational structural theories.

Frederick Taylor was the father of modern efficiency model. Around early 1900's, he formalized the principles of Scientific Management and developed a set of ideas designed focusing on the individual to help maximize efficiency. His main idea was that every job could be done in a scientific method which maximizes profit, he also believed that workers are inherently lazy and their rational thought made them maximize their own utility. Taylor states that Management (not workers) are to develop a science for every job, which replaces the old rule of thumb method. In order to do that, workers should be scientifically selected, trained, and placed in jobs for which they are mentally and physically suited. This scientific training is one of the most important principles of Taylor's Scientific Management. The job to be done should also be analyzed scientifically to determine the best way to do that job and standard times for jobs and work processes are to be established. Incentives should be offered so that workers behave in accordance with principles of the scientific management that have been developed. Also, management must support workers by carefully planning and helping implement their work.

Taylor stated that there are "misfortunes of industry" which hinders the progress of improving work. Taylor referred to one of these misfortunes as the "soldiering" of the worker; which means that the worker is not working at its full potential. Taylor states that "this loafing or soldiering proceeds from two causes. First, from the natural instinct and tendency...
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