Scientific Management was the product of 19th Century industrial practices and has no relevance to the present day.
Adam Smith was the first person who developed the theory of Scientific Managementin 1800. He was the first person who broke the tasks into sub tasks to carry out the work in the factory where he was working. To the surprise, the labourthatused to make 20 pins a day produced around 4800 pins a day.Later in 19thcentury, Frederick Winslow Taylor devised the scientific management in order to improve the productivity of labour by analysing the process of workflow(Wrege, C.D. (2008).Frederick Taylor was termed as father of scientific management and also the scientific management was termed as Taylorism due to his contribution in understanding the workflow process in the factories. Though he contributed maximum, but there were others like Gantt and Gilbreth who also contributed to the theory of scientific management.Technically speaking the scientific management is the concern related with the efficiency of the worker working individually. However according to the George Ritzerscientific management is a nonhuman procedure and have used their control on the workers.Before Taylorism, it was only one rule that was followed by all business that was “rule of thumb”; here the workerwas responsible for taking the initiative and also control of the work therefore the results of success and failure were because of his hard work.However, according to Taylor, the rule of thumb was not sufficient and with his studies of his work place he concluded that there is only “one best way”. (Kanigel, R.1997). That one best way was that he wanted to divide the workamong the workers and the employees and give specific task to each labour and expected them to do that particular task constantly.According to him it was the best method that should be adopted by the employees and will also create a best job.(Wrege, C.D. (2008). Logically speaking, his adoption of this method was correct, as over the time, the repetition of task will have good productivity and also the quality will also improve gradually.Taylor believed in bottom up approachin the organisation where the motivation is only for the shop floor workers so that they can increase the productivity and quality of work whereas according to Henry Ford, in his organisation the structure was top down where the aim was to motivate and improve the management’s top section.(Chandler, A.D., Jr. 1990).Taylor carried out the experiment on the workers where he broke the task by redesigning the work flow. He asked the workers to load the bars of iron the on the open rail car. By redesigning and breaking the task, the workers were able to load 47.5 tons of bar each day instead of 12.5. He therefore mentioned that the people are just motivated by money and nothing else.At this time he started the new structure in the organisation which was called “fair days wage based on fair days work”.(Kanigel, R. (1997). According to him, workers will be paid extra only when the output is more from them and also they will get bonus only of completing the targets.It was Gilbreth who supported the ideas of Taylor and gave his input as well in increasing the efficiencyand output of the employees.
Henry Gantt and Henry Ford gave the new definition the scientific management. They humanized the scientific management. According to Gantt it is important to consider the employees physiological needs. In his theory of scientific management, he did not went in to the details of the deskilling the employees though he followed the one best way method of Taylor.(Sharples, M. & du Boulay, G.H.2002).According to him, each worker should be given standardised wages and also the bonus. He also made a plan of work that was useful to the managers as well as the employees.Further later, Henry Ford gave new meaning to the scientific managementhis principles were later referred as Fordism. Henry Ford was the owner of the card...
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