Project Stakeholder Management

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To Dr Alex Manzoni

The evolution of management thought and it’s relation to project management organisational structures.

Author: Jarrod Belle
Executive Summary

1.0 – Introduction
2.0 – Part A – Management functions and evolution
3.1 – Preclassical period
3.2 – Classical viewpoint
3.3.1 – Scientific management
3.3.2 – Bureaucratic management
3.3.3 – Administrative management
3.0 – Part B – Project Management and organisational structures 4.3 – Project management
4.4 – Organisational Structures
4.5 – Innovation and Entrepreneurship
4.0 – Appendix A – Bibliography
5.0 – Appendix B – Organisational Chart - Citywide

1.0 – Introduction
The process of organising groups of individuals to accomplish tasks is ancient but the idea or development of management is relatively new. Management is an essential tool used to acquire, allocate or utilise human efforts and natural resources to accomplish some predetermined goals. The evolution of management can be traced back essentially to small groups of prehistoric humans beginning to communicate and organise themselves into functional groups for the purposes of increasing their hunting effectiveness. From these humble beginning human, population numbers began to increase which facilitated the formation of more complex societal groups or communities. The result was an evolution of management and organisation which was utilised by early civilisations to accomplish astounding feats or engineering such as the Great Wall of China and the Pyramids at Giza. It wasn’t until the industrial revolution of the 19th and 20th century that management theory was transformed and lead to some of the great advances in the field. Modern management is the product on centuries of differing and varied views on management. The functions of modern management stem from many areas but in particular the classic, humanistic and scientific perspectives of management. 2.0 – Part A – Management Perspectives

3.1 – Preclassical period
The preclassical period represents a time of early industrialisation. From Johannes Gutenberg’s development of the first mechanical printing press in the fourteen hundreds, management ideas have developed to accommodate these types of information and technological advances. James Watt was a pioneering inventor of the 1700’s. Watt developed the first workable steam engine in 1765. It wasn’t until his 1781 when his technological breakthrough allowed for the up and down motion of the piston to be converted into the rotary motion of an engine that the beginning of industrialisation took place. This discovery allowed for the lifting of coal from mines and eventually the steam powered locomotive to name but a few. Another major contributor to early industrialisation was Adam Smith. Born in 1723, the Scottish political economist is credited with the birth of capitalism and modern economic thought. The wealth of nations, written but Smith in 1776, established the classical school of economics and became the foundation of liberal economics. Smith’s economic theory further developed the concept of specialisation of labour being the pillar of the market mechanism. The example of how the pin making process, once broken into its elemental parts and each task allocated to individuals, greatly increased production could be found through efficiency through repetition. Many other great pioneers made contributions to this period including Robert Owen’s and his work on social conditions of the worker, Charles Babbage’s and his work on specialisation and efficiency as well as Henry Towne’s principle of management can all be credited with changing attitudes to labour and management. Overall the economic theories of Smith and the pioneering discoveries of Watt formed the foundational basis of the industrialisation of Britain and Europe, laying fertile ground for further management...
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