It focuses on the efficiency of the work process. It has three schools of thinking: Scientific management, which looks at ‘the best way’ to do a job; Bureaucratic management, which focuses on rules and procedures, hierarchy and clear division of labor; and Administrative management, which emphasizes the flow of information within the organization. From Scientific management it thought today’s administrative function by:
• Developing new standard methods for doing each job
• Selecting, training, and developing workers instead of allowing them to choose their own tasks and train themselves
• Developing a spirit of cooperation between workers and management to ensure that work is carried out in accordance with devised procedures
• Dividing work between workers and management in almost equal shares, with each group taking over the work for which it is best fitted
In Bureaucratic management
• A well-defined hierarchy. All positions within a bureaucracy are structured in a way that permits the higher positions to supervise and control the lower positions. This chain of command facilitates the control and order throughout the organization.
• Division of labor and specialization. Responsibilities in an organization are specialized so that each employee has the necessary expertise to do a particular task.
• Rules and regulations. Standard operating procedures govern all organizational activities to provide certainty and facilitate coordination.
• Impersonal relationships between managers and employees. Managers should maintain an impersonal relationship with employees so that...