I General information
1. Who is the author?
2. What is the title?
3. Is the title clear or obscure?
4. What feelings and expectations does the title arise?
5. Who is the narrator:
➢ The author him/herself (a person who knows everything about the facts and the characters but takes NO part in the action of the story) ➢ External narrator ( i. e. an outsider who speaks of people they knew but whose role in the plot is merely that of an observer) ➢ One of the main characters
➢ One of the minor characters
NB In the 2nd,3d and 4th cases he story is usually told in the 1st person, but it is absolutely wrong to associate that “I” with the writer who wrote the story. The “I” of the story is either one of the characters or the narrator. ➢ There is no narrator, we learn what happens through the characters’ thoughts and dialogues NB The story may also be told by several narrators.
6. What personal pronouns are used in the story?
1. When and where does the action take place?
2. Which details define the plot?
3. What events prove that the action happens in …?
4. Are events presented in a chronological order or are there flashbacks? 5. Give a short summary in a about 10 lines, no more.
6. Are there any subplots (other events) and what is their purpose? 7. Is there a climax or anticlimax? (нарастание сюжета/его убывание)
1. Who are the main characters?
2. What about minor characters? What is their function? Their features. What is their class in the society? (upper/lower/middle/working, etc.) 3. Is there a conflict? Is it external or internal?
4. Does the hero(ine) have to fight against any opposing force? 5. What feelings do the characters express? What are their physical and moral features? 6. What is the relationship with the others and environment? 7. The method of the characters’ portrayal?
It can be direct (when the author him/herself tells us what this or that character is like) or indirect, sometimes called dramatic (when the characters are revealed through their behaviour, actions, speech). The two methods may be combined. The may also be used in contrast, when the author consciously misleads the reader first describing a character in a certain way and then making them act in a striking contrast to that description, so that they are revealed in a new and unexpected light. Characters may be given by the author either statically or in development. A character may develop in different ways: either the person him/herself may change in the course of the story, or our knowledge of them may change, when in the course of narration they are revealed to us in a new aspect.
IV What is the theme of the story? (love, relations, generation gap, gender gap, etc.)
a) Descriptions (of what?)
b) Dialogues (between who(m)?)
c) Stylistic differentiation of the vocabulary:
Word-stock (of any language) Literary Colloquial Neutral – the biggest group, no stylistic connotation, suitable for any communicative situation I. Literary words – is used in official, scientific, poetic messages. These words are: 1. Terms – words denoting objects, processes, phenomena of science, humanities, technique. 2. Archaisms – words, a) denoting historical phenomena which are no more in use (such as “yeoman”, “vassal”, ‘falconet”). These are historical words. b) used in poetry in the XVII – XIX cc. (such as “steed”, for “horse”; “quoth” for “said”; “woe” for “sorrow”). These are poetic words. c) in the course of language history ousted by newer synonymic words (such as “whereof” = of which; “to deem” = to think; “repast” = meal; “nay” = no). These are called archaic...