Sustainable Development Conceptual Framework in Tourism Industry Context in Taiwan: Resource Based View Chih-Wen Wu , National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to develop and test a conceptual framework for sustainable development in tourism industry context to address the integration of social, economic, and ecological elements of sustainable development and the contextual nature of sustainable development. Resource-based view theory was used to model the driving force, state and response indicators of sustainability development for tourism industry. Data was collected by the official census developed by the Taiwan Tourism Bureau. Indicators such as employment in the tourism industry, expenditures attributed to the tourism industry, air and water quality, tourism service, and hotel issues were used in the study. Structural equation modeling using AMOS software platform was used to generate and analyze the hypothesized relationships. The research results will be discussed.
A common criticism of sustainable tourism development is that there is no consistently agreed upon theoretical framework from which a scientific understanding can be built ( Cocklin,1995). Without guidance from theory that is verified through testing, the theoretical framework or model can be used inappropriate and lead to poor planning. Any tourism destination without an adequate plan for development that addresses the economic as well as social and environmental functions of the industry is under-prepared for the impacts of visitors, catastrophic events, and enforcing market forces. Without an understanding of these potential impacts on the environment-economic fabric of a industry, the sustainability of that industry is questionable. Therefore, a need exists to understand the complex interplay between the economic, environmental and social dynamics of a industry. Furthermore, Brundland(1987) warned that a persistent ignorance of the inseparability of these elements would constitute a mistake by the global community, and human needs must understand. Many approaches, however, tend to focus on only an aspect of a system overall sustainability, either
environment or economic sustainablility( Cooper and Vargas,2004). Mathieson and Wall(1982) recognized the scope of tourism impacts to exist in the economic, physical and social arenas. Cocklin(1995) the efforts have been superficial and omit reference to the social dimensions of sustainability. Twining-Ward(1999) interpreted this apparent lack of attention to the social aspects of sustainable tourism development as an impediment to move sustainability from principles to policy making. Efforts to create universal principles of sustainable tourism development have also come under criticism as understanding. Sustainable systems, according to Meyer and Helfman(1993) are not generalized at the global scale, but are adaptable to local conditions. The study addresses the contextual nature of sustainable tourism development. This is done by using a Delphi-method developed set of sustainability indicators by the World Tourism Organization to examine various issues of sustainability at a destination. Taiwan was examined using these indicators because the country has a number of attractive destinations within its borders and infant tourism product development. Resource based view theory guides the formation of a conceptual framework that is fashioned from two concepts. Past research on tourism development has focused primarily on a perspective of economic or social impacts. Although this approach has resulted in a wealth of knowledge, any interconnectedness between economy and environment is only assumed. Looking at sustainable tourism development from a resource perspective is more complex, an empirical study for...