This Literature review seeks to provide knowledge on the research that has been found on Sustainable Tourism Management in the Small Island Caribbean States. A general background would be given on, Sustainable Tourism, Sustainable Tourism Management likewise an overview of the Small Island Caribbean States along with the issues that are plaguing them with the development of Tourism. In addition to this there would be an examination of the relationship between Tourism and managing its Sustainability, furthermore analyzing and investigating the conflicts and issues that arise with it.
Sustainable Tourism Management
Edgell 2006, described Tourism in the Third millennium, properly managed, has the potential to participate in, change and improve the social, cultural economical, political, and ecological dimensions of future lifestyles.
However, King, Leblanc and Van Lowe, 2000 states that Tourism has a tendency to be more negative than positive when used as the sole, or primary, vehicle for development and when taken out of the hands of the local people who are most impacted. The Caribbean, like much of the Third World, is currently experiencing many of the negative side effects of the tourist trade.
According Swarbrooke 1999 Sustainable Tourism emphasizes the environmental, social and economic elements of the tourism system therefore defining it as Tourism which is economically viable but does not destroy the resources on which the future of Tourism, will depend, notably the physical environment and the Social fabric of the host Community. The World Tourism Organization 2005 decided that an agenda should be set when trying to manage Sustainable Tourism. This agenda needs to embrace two, interrelated, elements of the sustainability of tourism:
•The ability of tourism to continue as an activity in the future, ensuring that the conditions are right for this; and
•The ability of society and the environment to absorb and benefit from the impacts of tourism in a sustainable way.
Successful cases have shown that sustainable tourism can be achieved through wide participation and consensus building. The informed involvement of all relevant stakeholders, inter-agency coordination and strong political leadership are integral to this process. The development of sustainable tourism necessitates holistic and integrated management. This concept entails the identification of pertinent issues; preparation and adoption of management plans and full subsequent implementation. (United Nations Institute for Training and Research, 2006)
As articulated in the Tourism Management Journal vol.19,“ Sustainable tourism involves seeking a more productive and harmonious relationship between the visitor, the host community and the place thereby achieving a situation that can be maintained without depleting the resources, cheating the visitors or exploiting the local population. Juxtapose to sustainable tourism, Sustainable Tourism Development can be thought of as meeting the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for future … leading to management of all in such a way that we can fulfill economic, social and aesthetic needs while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support system”. (Girard, 2009)
Providing education about best management practices on issues such as carrying capacity, natural resources, environmental and economic instability, broadens the awareness of the visitor, tourism providers, resource managers and government officials making decisions about resource usage. (Sustainable Tourism, n.d.), this in turn would create a balance found between limits and usages so that continuous changing, monitoring and planning; ensure that tourism can be managed.
Small Island Caribbean States and its Tourism Issues
The Caribbean accounts for approximately 3% of world tourism arrivals...