The History of Sustainable Development
The basic principles of sustainable development for human settlements, townships and boroughs enjoy great popularity and they are likely to have been contrived and introduced for the 1st time by scientific community and public activists striving for better life of common people. They are disseminated all over the world due to the activities and measures taken by the United Nations. In the year of 1983 The World Commission on Environment and Development (that is the Commission of G.H. Bruntland), set up by the Nations, was the first to introduce the very concept of sustainable development, to download it for the whole of the mankind to commonly use it; the sustainable development concept was determined in the following way: the humanity is capable of making its development sustainable – that is to guarantee that such a development will meet the present needs without jeopardizing the abilities of the generations to come to meet their own requirements.
The Principles of Sustainable Development
The sustainable development principles acquired its legal status of the fundamental concept embracing the whole of contemporary world in the year of 1992 at the United Nations Conference on environment and development in Rio de Janeiro, where there were the delegations representing the governments of 179 countries of the world, as well as the numerous international and non-governmental organizations. The global sustainable development problems were worded there; the programming strategic document entitled «Agenda - XXI» was adopted and approved at the Conference, with the document in question containing the recommendations to the authorities of all the countries of the world to elaborate their own long-term sustainable development programmes suitable for their terrains. According to the Rio de Janeiro Conference organizers, the purport and the challenge of such programmes are to be the socially-oriented economic development, the resource base protection, as well as the environment protection for the whole planet, in general and for the sake of the future of all the countries, in particular.
The Sustainable Development Indicators
The present paper author backs up the traditional academic approach to sustainable development (with the concept being initiated by Hartmut Bossel, Alex MacGillivray, Simon Zadek, Graham Miller and Louise Twining-Ward) and the very determination and purport of sustainable development implying the life quality improvement of the entire population in every length and breadth of the world, releasing the great human tension on nature resources and decreasing the excessive deterioration of the Earth ecosystem and the extra involvement in its functioning. According to the academic lecture course the author went through during the Master-and-Science programme, the following indicators and parameters of sustainable development were pinpointed: Social characteristics:
• poverty eradication
• steady demographic acceleration
• the promotion of education level and quality; human resource development an informational dissemination • human health care and security improvement
• human community advance
• financial resources
• great dependence on external sources of energy and raw materials • coherence with outside-consumers of products
• transmission to green technologies and environmentally friendly hightechs Ecological indicators:
• water resource quality and quality preservation
• the environmentally secure monitoring of household waters, outlets, sewage, toxic materials, wastewater, dangerous medical wastes, as well as the environmentally safe management of wastes at wastes-deposits and landfills • sensible land use and forest resource consumption
• sea and ocean water protection.
The Contemporary City’s Sustainable...
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