Stages of Cognitive Development
In the infancy stage infants have little knowledge and awareness of thought processes. Children in this stage also have a general absence of learning strategies. Toddlers in this stage however, can point or look at a location to remember where their toy or object is hidden. Around age two children some children can use an object to get another object. Around one year some are able to plan actions to accomplish a goal. In early childhood some are able to show evidence of the rehearsal stage, but this has little effect on their learning and memory. Some children in this stage can also use organization with objects. In this stage they have some ability to learn strategies that are modeled by others. Children in this stage often overestimate how much they can typically remember. In middle childhood children use rehearsal as their dominate way of learning. Such as remembering sight words or spelling of words. Just like in the early childhood stage, children in this stage use organization, but they are gradually increasing its use. In this stage children are more likely to reflect on their own thought processes. Early adolescence is when children use elaboration as their learning strategy. In this stage you might also observe some ineffective study skills, such as poor note-taking skills. They are increasing their use of learning strategies. Children in this stage are also learning to manage their own learning. In the late adolescence stage, just like the early adolescence stage, are increasing their use of elaboration. They are becoming aware of what strategies are most effective. In this stage they are also recognizing that knowledge involves understanding the correlation among different ideas.
McDevitt, T. M., & Ormrod, J. E. (2004). Chapter 5. In Child development: Educating and working with children and adolescents (2nd ed., pp. 184-235). Prentice Hall.
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