In chapter 3, we look more into the specific and changing environment. There are five components in specific environment. They are the customers, the competitors, the suppliers, industry regulation and advocacy group. There are three steps to identifying changes in the external environment. The first is environmental scanning, then interpreting environmental factors and lastly, acting on opportunity and threats. There are many competitors in the hardware industry. In Vitraco, competitors are very influential in terms of the company putting the pricing and improving the quality of our products. They will give better service if there are threats. The company will do intensive research and development to improve the quality of our product. They will also change staffs that are not productive. In chapter 9, we study the organizational authority and the job design. Authority is the right to command, take action, and make decision to achieve organizational objectives. There are three types of organizational authority. They are chain of command, line versus staff authority and delegation of authority. Chain of command is the vertical line of authority that clarifies who reports to whom through the organization. Line authority is the right to command immediate subordinates in the chain of command, while staff authority is the right to achieve, but not to command, others who are not subordinates in the chain of command. Delegation of authority is the assignment of direct authority and responsibility to a subordinate to complete task for which the manager is normally responsible. In job design, it is the number, kind and variety of task that individual workers perform in doing their job. There are three types of job design, they are, job specialization, job rotation, enlargement and enrichment, and job characteristic modal. In the company that we interview the CEO and marketing director of Vitraco, Vitraco uses job specialization and divides job...
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