The major research approaches to studying leadership are the trait approach, the behavior approach, the power-influence approach, the situational approach, and the integrative approach. The trait approach studies natural leaders who never get tired, have precise intuition, predicting foresight, and powers to help others believe the leader’s approaches. The personality, motives, values, and skills attributes, of this approach, are better examined when studying leadership behavior and effectiveness before researching the values of the leader, related to ethical leadership. The behavior approach has two general subcategories.
One subcategory researches managers’ activities, responsibilities, functions and meeting demands and overcoming challenges and limitations of their duties. The management methods consist of data collection from observing, keeping daily journals, job description questionnaires, and anecdotes obtained from interviews. The other subcategory of the behavior approach consists of a behavior description survey design. The power-influence approach specifies the influential process of leaders in comparison to other individuals. This approach analyzes the leader perspective with the constant situation of leaders acting and followers reacting. Leadership effectiveness related to leader power is important. The power controls subordinates, peers, superiors, clients, and suppliers. The way followers behave is also controlled from the actions of leaders. Influence tactics are the liaison between the power-influence approach and the behavior approach. One of the tactics is the participative leadership that is closely related to sharing of power and empowering the followers. This is also entailed in the behavior research. Another tactic is ‘consultation and delegation to give people a sense of ownership for decisions” (Leadership in Organizations, Seventh Edition, Yukl, 2010). The situational approach focuses on followers’ characteristics, the type...
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