SMALL -SCALE INDUSTRY
Small –scale industries plays a key role in the industrialisation of a developing country .This is because they provide immediate large-scale employment and have a comparatively higher labour –capital ratio: they need a short gestation period and relatively smaller market to be economic; they need lower investments ,offer a method of ensuring a more equitable distribution of national income and facilitate an effective mobilization of resources of capital and skill which might otherwise remain unutilized ;and they stimulate the growth of industrial entrepreneurship and promote a more diffused pattern of ownership and location. Small –scale industries contribute significantly to social and economic development objectives such as labour absorption ,income distribution ,rural development ,poverty eradication, regional balance and promotion of entrepreneurship.Infact,they play an important role in the process of a country’s industrial development.
Since the time of independence, the small-scale sector in India has been a major contributor to country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This traditional sector in India is considered to have huge growth prospect with its wide range of products. With 40 percent share in total industrial output and 35 percent share in exports, the small-scale industrial sector in India is acting as Engine of Growth in the new millennium. The definition for small-scale industrial undertakings has changed over time. Initially they were classified into two categories- those using power with less than 50 employees and those not using power with the employee strength being more than 50 but less than 100. However the capital resources invested on plant and machinery buildings have been the primary criteria to differentiate the small-scale industries from the large and medium scale industries. An industrial unit can be categorized as a small- scale unit if it fulfils the capital investment limit fixed by the Government of India for the small-scale sector. As per the latest definition which is effective since December 21, 1999, for any industrial unit to be regarded as Small Scale Industrial unit the following condition is to be satisfied: - Investment in fixed assets like plants and equipments either held on ownership terms on lease or on hire purchase should not be more than Rs 10 million. However the unit in no way can be owned or controlled or ancillary of any other industrial unit. The traditional small-scale industries clearly differ from their modern counterparts in many respects. The traditional units are highly labor consuming with their age-old machineries and conventional techniques of production resulting in poor productivity rate whereas the modern small-scale units are much more productive with less manpower and more sophisticated equipments. Khadi and handloom, sericulture, handicrafts, village industries, coir, Bell metal are some of the traditional small-scale industries in India. The modern small industries offer a wide range of products starting from simple items like hosiery products, garments, leather products, fishing hook etc to more sophisticated items like television sets, electronics control system, various engineering products especially as ancillaries to large industrial undertakings. Nowadays Indian small-scale industries (SSIs) are mostly modern small-scale industries. Modernization has widened the list of products offered by this industry. The items manufactured in modern Small-scale service & Business enterprises in India now include rubber products, plastic products, chemical products, glass and ceramics, mechanical engineering items, hardware, electrical items, transport equipment, electronic components and equipments, automobile parts, bicycle parts, instruments, sports goods, stationery items and clocks and watches. Since independence the Government of India has nurtured this sector with special care with the...
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