A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy
Capella University May, 2005
©Gregory Opara-Nadi, 2005
ELECTRONIC SELF-CHECKOUT SYSTEM VERSUS CASHIER OPERATED SYSTEM: A PERFORMANCE BASED COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS by Gregory E. Opara-Nadi has been approved May 2005 APPROVED: JIM MIRABELLA, D.B.A., Faculty Mentor and Chair ALISA MOSLEY, Ph.D, Committee Member NORBERTO CRUZ, Ed.D., Independent Reviewer DAL DIDIA, Ph.D, Visiting Professor DELLROY BIRCH, Peer Learner ACCEPTED AND SIGNED: JIM MIRABELLA, D.B.A. Kurt Linberg, Ph.D. Executive Director, School of Business
Abstract Customers want fast checkout systems. Retailers are always searching for ways to improve store checkout systems. This study compared the cashier checkout and the electronic selfcheck out systems. Data for this study were collected by observations of checkout processes at Wal-Mart Super Centers in the Jackson, Mississippi, area. Formulated research questions were statistically tested employing the independent samples t-tests and the chi square test for independence. Results of these analyses showed that consumers preferred the cashier
checkout system to the electronic self-checkout system, although shoppers also want to learn how to use the new self-checkout technology. Further studies were suggested on methods of introducing new Point of Sale technology to consumers, and ways to help managers compare costs of checkout systems.
Dedication This dissertation is dedicated in memory of my late parents Chief Phillip Opara-Nadi and Chief/Mrs. Helen A. Opara-Nadi.
Acknowledgments As this journey comes to an end; it would be great if I acknowledge everyone who helped make this journey a success. I know that I cannot recognize everyone of these individuals here. However, I am sincerely grateful to all these wonderful people. I would like to express my appreciation and thanks to the members of my dissertation committee Dr. Alicia A. Mosley, Dr. Norberto Cruz, Dr Dal Didia and Mr. Dellroy Birch. Thanks for your guidance and untiring efforts in reviewing my work and steering me toward the right direction through the process of this dissertation. A special thanks to Dr. James Mirabella, you are the greatest, your inspiration, support, encouragement, and willingness to mentor and chair my dissertation process. I would also like to express my gratitude to Miss Sandra Parker Allen, a friend and a coworker, and Dr. Ancilla Coleman for their special support during my dissertation process. Furthermore, I would like to express gratitude to the wonderful and inspiring professors during my graduate studies. Finally, I want to acknowledge members of my family, especially my granddaughter Crystalie; my three sons Brian, Christopher, and Joseph; and my wife Hattie S. Opara-Nadi for her love, encouragement and tireless effort in making this journey a success. I love you all.
Table of Contents Dedication Acknowledgment Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures Title Page CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Background of the Problem Statement of the Problem Purpose of the Study Research Questions Research Hypothesis Significance of the Study Definition of Terms Assumptions and Limitations Nature and Conceptual Framework of the Study CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Factors influencing length of time customers spend waiting in line Time Wasted (Idle Time) in Grocery Lines iii iv v ix x xi 1 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 11 13 13 14
The Queuing Experience Consumer’s Perception on Filled and Empty Time Attribution and Affective Reactions Perception and Influences on Customers’ Preference Service Relationships and Evaluations The Psychology of Combining Queues Queues, Affective Experience, Satisfaction, and Decisions History of the Queuing Theory and Waiting Line Techniques...